Keltic Seafaring

Written by Robert Bruce Baird

Many academics are unable to handlerepparttar possibility of ships that travelledrepparttar 127641 oceans as long ago asrepparttar 127642 Franchithi Caves dig that showed 13,000 B.C. community fishing fleets. It even was hard for most to acceptrepparttar 127643 Kelts atrepparttar 127644 time of Caesar had this technology at that time despiterepparttar 127645 words of Caesar. Some people think knowledge once gained is never lost but that is far from true. Barry Fell was a Harvard Professor of Oceanography before he gotrepparttar 127646 bug to exposerepparttar 127647 truth. Some (Like Wiseman in Archaeology Magazine of ‘Camelot in Kentucky’ article from 2001) ridicule Fell as "self-taught" in matters such as Ogham. Truth is, Fell took one ofrepparttar 127648 only small courses available atrepparttar 127649 time from Edinburgh University. Who can really learnrepparttar 127650 truth from academics that hide it? His name was made dirt by academics but his legacy from America B.C and Bronze Age America has been sweet vindication. Here is a little ofrepparttar 127651 story of his travails, which is presented for more reason than justrepparttar 127652 obvious need to reinforce onrepparttar 127653 existence and loss of Keltic seacraft technology. The rise and fall of Celtic sea power has been strangely neglected {Althoughrepparttar 127654 movie 'Spartacus' shows Kirk Douglas arranging passage to Italy fromrepparttar 127655 Kelts[Silesians and Galatians are Kelts back torepparttar 127656 time of Punt] who ruledrepparttar 127657 Sea.} by most historians and archaeologists as to prompt much skepticism when first I began to report Celtic inscription in America. 'I can't say I've ever heard thatrepparttar 127658 Celts were seafarers,' was a typical comment. Those who recall that Julius Caesar describedrepparttar 127659 Britons as mostly naked savages, wearing only iron torques about their necks, {A torquetum or tanawa is an ancient sextant known to have existed in this period as Maui navigated for a well known Greek and was able to calculate longitude.} sometimes withrepparttar 127660 skin of a beast cast overrepparttar 127661 shoulders, think ofrepparttar 127662 Britons as having nothing better than one-man coracles for crossing water. Nothing could be further fromrepparttar 127663 truth. In fact, most of Book III of Caesar's 'De Bello Gallico' is devoted torepparttar 127664 greatest naval battle he was ever called upon to mount. And his adversaries? None other thanrepparttar 127665 Celts of Brittany, whose fleet was swelled byrepparttar 127666 arrival of a flotilla they had summoned from their allies in Britain! The combined Gallic and British naval armament comprised an immensely powerful force, numbering, so Caesar tells us, no less than 220 ships, all larger than and superior in construction to those ofrepparttar 127667 opposing Roman navy under Admiral Brutus. These Celtic ships, Caesar says, were so soundly constructed that they could outride tempestuous or contrary winds uponrepparttar 127668 very ocean itself without sustaining injury ('De Bello Gallico', books III,XIII,I.). It is clear that these fine vessels, which towered overrepparttar 127669 Roman galleys, hadrepparttar 127670 capability of crossingrepparttar 127671 Atlantic Ocean 'vasto atque aperto mari', "uponrepparttar 127672 vast open sea," as Caesar indicates."(2) Does it cross your mind that these ships were in fact employed in such voyages torepparttar 127673 Americas? Why had Caesar never seen their like before? The wind went down andrepparttar 127674 Roman galleys threw grappling hooks intorepparttar 127675 Celtic rigging and sails then boarded them. Caesar made a deal (as was his wont) withrepparttar 127676 cousins of his ancestors who were not in control of all. He gave them full citizenship of Rome, which they in fact had established after defeatingrepparttar 127677 Tarquin kings of Etruria. Thusrepparttar 127678 nature of Catholicism andrepparttar 127679 Anglican church has a long and sordid past association, as they outlawedrepparttar 127680 Druids and put a bounty on their heads. Can you see why we thinkrepparttar 127681 Toltecs or others in America might have Druidic roots? There is no further mention of British or Gaulish naval vessels in Caesar's commentaries, nor does Tacitus inrepparttar 127682 century that followed give any space or consideration to native naval might. It seems thatrepparttar 127683 battle againstrepparttar 127684 Veneti wasrepparttar 127685 end of Celtic sea power in classical times. Except forrepparttar 127686 periodic truculence by British chiefs like Queen Boadicaea.

NORMAN TOTTEN: - “The Eye of God andrepparttar 127687 Agricultural Grid By Norman Totten Bentley College, Waltham, Massachusetts

Impetus for this kind of research wasrepparttar 127688 need to understandrepparttar 127689 “atna-kuna” motif so prevalent in Celtic New England and Iberia, and frequently associated withrepparttar 127690 “eye of Bel”. James Whittall has been locating examples of it in Portugal and Spain. Fell, Dix, and Oedel have recently published observations about it.

This presentation is limited to what seems to berepparttar 127691 two predominant symbolic forms ofrepparttar 127692 sun and earth in ancient inscriptions - -repparttar 127693 eye ofrepparttar 127694 sun god andrepparttar 127695 cultivated field grid. Both have occurred in numerous varieties, visually and phonetically. This paper should be read as a progress report, incomplete in its consideration and somewhat tentative in its conclusions regarding a vast and complex problem.

I. Morphology and Dissemination: Eye ofrepparttar 127696 Sun

Though he later equivocated about which directionrepparttar 127697 evolution had occurred, Sir Arthur Evans (1984, p. 303) set forthrepparttar 127698 basic forms ofrepparttar 127699 eye of Ra - - from one complete with lashes (rays) to a circle (pupil) enclosing a smaller circle or dot (iris).” (6)

This is important to understandingrepparttar 127700 worldwide cultures andrepparttar 127701 elite corporate traders. The circle with a dot isrepparttar 127702 Mark of Qayin or Cain (Gardner’s Genesis ofrepparttar 127703 Grail Kings and other sources) and as such it isrepparttar 127704 adept cartouche or signifying token forrepparttar 127705 family of Jesus andrepparttar 127706 ‘arch-tectons’ (Septuagint) ofrepparttar 127707 Great Pyramid.

In ‘Bel’ we haverepparttar 127708 Keltic God as well asrepparttar 127709 Mesopotamian (later) God. To find them so closely associated or connected inrepparttar 127710 Iberias that now carry names like Spain, Ireland and North America adds a great additional clue torepparttar 127711 Tartessian (source ofrepparttar 127712 ‘Biblical Ships of Tarshis’) sites being excavated or studied in Anatolia and Portugal. They all start with Iberia inrepparttar 127713 Caspian andrepparttar 127714 Black Sea region that isrepparttar 127715 genetic homeland ofrepparttar 127716 Kelts some 30-35,000 years ago. Because we can genetically and forensically trace and track these people and marry them to dateable artifacts we have a credible history untainted by kingly or priestly power mongers.

Another ESOP excerpt fromrepparttar 127717 work of Totten deals with Moroccan monastics exiled to America inrepparttar 127718 5th Century AD. “In Figuigrepparttar 127719 monks were solitary (monachos), but in communal life (Koinos Bios) of brothers (fratres), a friary. Their form of testifying (martyrium) under persecution was not death in an arena forrepparttar 127720 pleasure of pagan spectators but exile, exile torepparttar 127721 wilderness of America.” (7)

TERRACOTTA HEAD OF A ROMAN IN MEXICO: - "This year, Scandinavians celebraterepparttar 127722 1,000 years since Leif Ericsson sailed torepparttar 127723 New World from Greenland. Bjarni Herjolfsson was supposedlyrepparttar 127724 first to step ashore onrepparttar 127725 New World. Historians have long believed that Ericsson's colony at L'Anse aux Meadows, onrepparttar 127726 northern-most tip of Newfoundland, representedrepparttar 127727 first evidence of Europeans onrepparttar 127728 continent {When Farley Mowat wrote about it in 'Westviking' he was ridiculed.}. However, a wide variety of archaeological evidence points to earlier contact. A black terracotta head of a bearded man, about 2 in (5cm) tall, found inrepparttar 127729 Toluca Valley about 40 miles (64km) west of Mexico City in 1933 and dated by thermoluminescence to about 200 AD, could berepparttar 127730 first reliable proof that Roman sailors reached America. It is different in style from any other known pre-Columbian artwork and has been identified as Roman by art experts. Although much was written aboutrepparttar 127731 head since its discovery, its whereabouts were unknown until 1994, when it was found locked away in a Mexico City museum by a US anthropologist appropriately named Dr Roman Hristov.

Why Condition Your Boiler Water?

Written by Thomas Yoon

A boiler is used for generating steam. It does this by heating water to its boiling point, after which steam will evaporate from it.

When you boil a kettle of water, you will shut offrepparttar fire or electric power whenrepparttar 127640 water comes to a boil.

No so with a steam boiler. Generation of steam is a continuous process. Once a boiler is generating steam, it may take quite a long while before it is stopped. When steam is evaporated fromrepparttar 127641 water, new water has to be added in to replacerepparttar 127642 water given out.

As more and more steam is evaporated,repparttar 127643 water becomes more and more concentrated with salts and other impurities. If you use your kettle for a long while, you will see some chalky deposits inside it.

The fresh water supplied to replenish those lost through evaporation cannot be pure and free from salts. Even minute quantities of salt inrepparttar 127644 water will eventually become so concentrated as to form scales or deposits. The deposits are usually calcium or magnesium salts.

These scales are very damaging torepparttar 127645 boiler because they interfere withrepparttar 127646 heat transfer and can lead to overheating and eventually, boiler rupture.

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