Famous Filibusters in Political History

Written by Garry Gamber

The filibuster as a political delaying tactic has been a part ofrepparttar American political process sincerepparttar 136050 adoption ofrepparttar 136051 U.S. Constitution. Though it was not used inrepparttar 136052 early years ofrepparttar 136053 nation,repparttar 136054 filibuster has been used hundreds of times sincerepparttar 136055 1840's. Here are a few ofrepparttar 136056 famous filibusters from our political history.

The U.S. Constitution does not limitrepparttar 136057 length or nature of debate onrepparttar 136058 floors ofrepparttar 136059 Senate orrepparttar 136060 House of Representatives. The House has since adopted rules which limitrepparttar 136061 length of debate sincerepparttar 136062 House has a very large number of Representatives. Butrepparttar 136063 smaller Senate has always upheldrepparttar 136064 right of a recognized Senator to debate an issue for as long as he or she wishes to holdrepparttar 136065 floor. Senate Rule 19 and Rule 22,repparttar 136066 cloture rule adopted in 1917, create some guidelines for conducting a debate and for closingrepparttar 136067 debate when it becomes lengthy.

Senator Henry Clay

In 1841 Senator Henry Clay proposed a bank bill that was opposed by Senator John C. Calhoun who began a lengthy, seemingly unending, rebuttal. Calhoun basically createdrepparttar 136068 modern filibuster. Clay threatened to changerepparttar 136069 Senate rules in order to close debate onrepparttar 136070 issue. Clay's colleague, Thomas Hart Benton, rebuked Clay and accused him of trying to stiflerepparttar 136071 Senate's right to unlimited debate.

Throughrepparttar 136072 next few turbulent decades and intorepparttar 136073 1960'srepparttar 136074 filibuster was used often by Southern Democrats to block civil rights legislation. The filibuster had been seen byrepparttar 136075 minority party as a tool to combatrepparttar 136076 potential "tyranny ofrepparttar 136077 majority," butrepparttar 136078 frequent usage ofrepparttar 136079 filibuster byrepparttar 136080 Southern Democrats became characterized asrepparttar 136081 "tyranny ofrepparttar 136082 minority."

Senate Rule 22

President Woodrow Wilson suggested that some limits be placed onrepparttar 136083 unlimited debate concept. In 1917repparttar 136084 Senate adopted Senate Rule 22, now known asrepparttar 136085 "cloture" rule. The new Rule 22 providedrepparttar 136086 mechanism to close out debate on a legislative bill and bringrepparttar 136087 bill up for a vote if cloture was approved by 67% ofrepparttar 136088 Senate. The 67% requirement remained in effect until 1975 when Rule 22 was amended to allow a 60% agreement to invoke cloture.

Cloture Rule 22 was tested in 1919 whenrepparttar 136089 Senate was asked to ratifyrepparttar 136090 Treaty of Versailles, which ended World War I. The treaty was debated and filibustered, but a 67% majority voted to endrepparttar 136091 filibuster and to bringrepparttar 136092 treaty to a vote.

Senator Huey Long

Senator Huey Long,repparttar 136093 fiery and colorful senator from Louisiana, maderepparttar 136094 filibuster famous between 1932 and 1935 when he utilized it several times to stall legislation that he considered unfair torepparttar 136095 poor. Long frustrated his opponents and entertainedrepparttar 136096 Senate gallery by reading Shakespeare, reciting shrimp and oyster recipes and talking about "pot-likkers." An amendment to Senate Rule 19 later required that debate on legislation be germane torepparttar 136097 issue being debated.

On June 12, 1935, Senator Long engaged in his most famous filibuster. A bill was beforerepparttar 136098 Senate to eliminaterepparttar 136099 provision forrepparttar 136100 Senate to confirm senior National Recovery Act employees. Senator Long opposedrepparttar 136101 bill because he didn't want his political adversaries in Louisiana to obtain lucrative N.R.A. jobs. Senator Long spoke for 15 hours and 30 minutes running well intorepparttar 136102 evening and early morning hours with senators dozing at their desks. Long read and analyzed each section ofrepparttar 136103 Constitution, a document which he claimed had become "ancient and forgotten lore" under President Roosevelt's New Deal.

Afterrepparttar 136104 reading ofrepparttar 136105 Constitution Senator Long offered to give advice torepparttar 136106 remaining senators on any subject of their choosing. No senator took Long up on his offer butrepparttar 136107 gallery patrons began sending notes torepparttar 136108 floor for Senator Long to extemporize on. That kept Long going intorepparttar 136109 early hours ofrepparttar 136110 morning. At 4 a.m. Long yieldedrepparttar 136111 floor in order to userepparttar 136112 restroom and his proposal was defeated.

James Stewart brought more fame torepparttar 136113 filibuster when he playedrepparttar 136114 role of Senator Jefferson Smith inrepparttar 136115 1939 film, "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington." Stewart's character launched into a filibuster in response to an attempt to ridicule him.

Senator Wayne Morse

Senator Wayne Morse from Oregon was called "The Tiger ofrepparttar 136116 Senate" and served inrepparttar 136117 Senate under 5 Presidents. In 1952 Senator Morse leftrepparttar 136118 Republican Party, claiming independent status, when he objected to sections ofrepparttar 136119 party platform and Dwight Eisenhower's choice of Richard Nixon as his vice presidential running mate. Senator Morse claimed thatrepparttar 136120 Republican Party had left him.

The Repercussions Of Bringing Former Terrorists To Mainstream Politics

Written by Angelique van Engelen

Today, in many countries’ political realities, tribalist and nationalist or globalist forces clash fiercely, undermining chances of peace and democracy. This is particularly topical inrepparttar Middle East, where efforts by established leaderships to discourage armed conflict have reached a new phase, in which both Hezbollah and Hamas, organizations labeled ‘terrorist’ byrepparttar 135916 US, are nudged to start thinking about participation in mainstream politics.

The number of countries inrepparttar 135917 world atrepparttar 135918 moment that are in some form of transition is higher than some ten years ago, and in some ways more efforts are made to resolve situations that threaten stability. Andrepparttar 135919 moves of all involved parties are not without major-league risks.

By finally addressing security issues by making a clean sweepthrough,repparttar 135920 Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas is slowly shifting into gear, startingrepparttar 135921 clampdown on Palestinian insurgency that has long been called for. he has even told Hamas fighters publicly to give up their arms, This was a first forrepparttar 135922 president who until now has been anything but clear on security issues. The Hamas leaders according to a report inrepparttar 135923 London Asharq Al Awsat paper are reportedly planning to return to Gaza afterrepparttar 135924 Israelis have withdrawn.

The newspaper report detailed thatrepparttar 135925 leaders are likely to move their group’s political bureau to Gaza as soon as Israel transfers control overrepparttar 135926 border crossings torepparttar 135927 Palestinian Authority. "When a militia turns into a political party, I believerepparttar 135928 issue of a need for arms becomes irrelevant," Abbas was quoted as saying. "There will be only one authority, one law and one legal [armed force]," according torepparttar 135929 recently elected Palestinian leader, who played downrepparttar 135930 risks involved inrepparttar 135931 operation, saying that this has happened many times before in history.

Hamas leaders however deemed it necessary to reiterate that they have no intention of disarming at all. "Our fingers will remain onrepparttar 135932 rifle triggers untilrepparttar 135933 removal ofrepparttar 135934 occupation," Hamas spokesman Mushir al-Masri said, according torepparttar 135935 Israeli Al Haaretz paper. Even though Hamas has participated inrepparttar 135936 elections recently, Masri doubted that this meansrepparttar 135937 members are actually going to function as such. It is remarks like these that worryrepparttar 135938 international community very much. US President George W. Bush has been said to be waiting with invitingrepparttar 135939 Palestianian leader Abbas until he has got something of substance to report. Perhaps an invitation will finally be extended soon now. The Palestinian leader has installed a hardliner as new intelligence chief. Tareq Abu Rajab, who used to be deputy intelligence chief, is known to have played an important role in a crackdown onrepparttar 135940 militant group Hamas. Hamas, which has participated in municipal elections already, might see next July’s municipal elections turn out in its favor. “Extrapolating fromrepparttar 135941 present point in time, Hamas I believe would gain between 30 and 50 percent inrepparttar 135942 elections torepparttar 135943 Palestinian Legislative Council in July. Fateh is in total disarray and is searching for its lost identity”, said Matti Steinberg, an Israeli former security advisor to two heads ofrepparttar 135944 Israel General Security Service. “Hamas could register considerable gains in elections and possibly demand to play a role inrepparttar 135945 next Palestinian Authority government”, according to Yossi Alpher, a former senior advisor to Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak. The gains thatrepparttar 135946 ‘party to be’ is likely to win are largely due to unhappiness ofrepparttar 135947 Palestine population withrepparttar 135948 Fateh party, which has lost its identity more or less due to dysfunctioning ofrepparttar 135949 PA. This is echoed by Ghassan Khattib,repparttar 135950 Palestinian Authority minister of planning. “It is possible that Hamas, which so far maintains a fundamentalist ideological and extreme political position, will become a pragmatic movement if it hasrepparttar 135951 chance to be part of official politics, locally, regionally and internationally. The rhetoric of Hamas now reminds many of Fateh's rhetoric when it was treated byrepparttar 135952 "legitimate powers" as an "illegal terrorist group". Fateh successfully worked out a trade-off. It was recognized and included inrepparttar 135953 system in return for playing politics withinrepparttar 135954 parameters of international legality”, he says.

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