Who are we?

Written by Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova

Chapter III. Evolution ofrepparttar person

All into all and All is God: In light of stars and dust of road, In silent wood and dreaming flight, And knocks of heart in your inside.

There is one alive essence which still has not reachedrepparttar 126231 perfection and in which all evolution is embodied. It is a person. In daily life, probably, each of us met such contradiction:repparttar 126232 quivering attitude ofrepparttar 126233 person to animals andrepparttar 126234 cruel attitude ofrepparttar 126235 same person to another people. The matter is that he feelsrepparttar 126236 perfection of animals andrepparttar 126237 imperfection (i.e. a present stage of development) of people. Distracting fromrepparttar 126238 basic direction, we shall notice,repparttar 126239 imperfection ofrepparttar 126240 person is influencing on homeostasis of biosphere and it can result in irreversible process of infringement of biosphere unity with pitiable consequences forrepparttar 126241 person,repparttar 126242 similar situation already was and will be described below. So who is a person? Whence has he appeared and when will be reached his perfection? There are some facts from joint research of anthropologists and geneticists: about 250 thousand years ago there was a first expansion ofrepparttar 126243 reasonable person primogenitors from Africa torepparttar 126244 Eurasian continent;repparttar 126245 reasonable person with physiology corresponding to us has appeared about 150 thousand years ago in Africa; one woman is a primogenitor of mankind; sharp reduction of prepersons number (it was up to several thousand on one data, it was up to several hundreds on anotherís ) was preceded before occurrence ofrepparttar 126246 reasonable person;repparttar 126247 (already) reasonable person beganrepparttar 126248 next worldwide expansion about 50 thousand years ago. There are several hypotheses aboutrepparttar 126249 reasons of occurrence ofrepparttar 126250 reasonable person, beginning from influence of radiation and finishing influence from space. We shall bring our hypothesis torepparttar 126251 common list. Occurrence ofrepparttar 126252 reasonable person was accompanied by infringement of biosphere homeostasis principles and of unity. Infringement ofrepparttar 126253 first principle of "narrow specialisation" has taken place, whenrepparttar 126254 premankind became omnivorous, premankind passed from consumption of vegetative food to animal. Infringement ofrepparttar 126255 second principle of "adaptability and birth rate" has arisen at sharp growth of premankind adaptability and not reduction, more likely, increase of ability to high rate of birth. We shall describerepparttar 126256 script of development of events of that epoch. Some millions years back our ancestors had a little difference from modern humanoid monkeys. They ate basically vegetative food, occupying a narrow niche; otherwise, they were one of parts in a chain of ecosystem. They were complete essences. They lived in harmony with themselves and with an external world though this harmony was not realised by them. They were perfect, more preciselyrepparttar 126257 perfect part ofrepparttar 126258 whole. To them, instead of to modern mankind, Marks's definition "person is a public animal" is approached, by virtue of an animal perfection. The mentality and behaviour ofrepparttar 126259 preperson too were as complete, fully corresponding with ecological niche and a part inrepparttar 126260 ecosystem with which he occupied. It would be well, if rudiments ofrepparttar 126261 preperson intelligence which we notice at humanoid monkeys have not started to develop. Researches of monkeys have been carried out at first half ofrepparttar 126262 XX century by German scientist Wolfgang Keller. Ability of humanoid monkeys torepparttar 126263 solving of simple tasks has been named "insight", that means inspiration. Insight allowsrepparttar 126264 humanoid monkey to solve a task instantly or never to solve it. Besides, paying attention onrepparttar 126265 theory of oriented activity andrepparttar 126266 oriented reflex, open by Russian scientist I. Pavlov, we suppose thatrepparttar 126267 mentality of animals adheres torepparttar 126268 following complex of actions. Being based onrepparttar 126269 main instincts (reproduction and self-preservation), havingrepparttar 126270 centres of pleasure, displeasure andrepparttar 126271 centre "That such?" (an oriented reflex), during a training,repparttar 126272 mentality ofrepparttar 126273 supreme animals is formed through formation ofrepparttar 126274 associative structures necessary for all occasions. Whenrepparttar 126275 animal gets in a familiar situation,repparttar 126276 mentality finds necessary associative structure and an animal starts to operate according to this structure, achieving reception of pleasure or avoidance of displeasure. In a unfamiliar situation there is a oriented reflex ("That such?") which forces to create new associative structure from already available, fastening of new structure occurs at achievement by an animal of pleasure or at avoidance of displeasure. Therefore animals can quickly changerepparttar 126277 behaviour at sharp change of external conditions. As against them, insectís life is completely dictated by instincts. An insect at change of external conditions will continue to carry outrepparttar 126278 started earlier of actions programme even if it will result in senseless result. Feature ofrepparttar 126279 preperson is in creating of complex of associative uniting structures withrepparttar 126280 associative detailed structures. It promoted development of subjectís application and instruments manufacturing, that in turn wasrepparttar 126281 cause of transition to animal food. Ability to detailed elaboration has dischargedrepparttar 126282 preperson from fauna and has givenrepparttar 126283 precondition to development of speech. The first associative structure responsible for detailed elaboration has arisen when a casually cracked stone foundrepparttar 126284 useful application. Inrepparttar 126285 further evolutionary developmentrepparttar 126286 mentality ofrepparttar 126287 preperson was divided into two spheres. Associative generalising structures were included inrepparttar 126288 first sphere. Associative detailed structures were included inrepparttar 126289 second sphere. It allowed withrepparttar 126290 help of instruments and joint actions of prepeople withrepparttar 126291 minimal expenses of energy to directrepparttar 126292 whole herds of animals in an abyss or in a bog. It was a first step to infringement of a homeostasis of an ecosystem, infringement ofrepparttar 126293 principle of "narrow specialisation". Ability to hunt on large animals becamerepparttar 126294 cause of a prepeople breeding and moving onrepparttar 126295 big distances from places where animals were destroyed to places where there were an abundance of animals. For 200 thousand years before expansion ofrepparttar 126296 reasonable person there was a first prepeople expansion. Anthropologists have found remnants of prepeople in Africa and on Eurasian continents. Anthropologists gave themrepparttar 126297 Neanderthal men name according to a place ofrepparttar 126298 first finding. Neanderthal men are a deadlocking lateral branch of mankind development. That part of premankind which did not begin to participate in expansion and has remained in Africa according to geneticists researches is our direct primogenitor. This part of prepeople has keptrepparttar 126299 pantophagous as against returning to specialisation at hunting of Neanderthal men.

The Phenomenon of Russia

Written by Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova

Translated from Russian. We shall be glad to receive your remarks on stylistics, grammar, and content issues.

The Chinese proverb says: Before going somewhere, find out where you are. Having paraphrased on Russian, we shall receive: Before asking "What to do?" find out who you are. The basic problem ofrepparttar Russian society isrepparttar 126230 following: we do not know who we are. We as a society are in unconsciousness. Let will address to a history. Russians did not understand itself and therefore searchedrepparttar 126231 help at outside of during many centuries. The first fact known to us isrepparttar 126232 invitation of Scandinavians to a board, becauserepparttar 126233 Russian "democratic" control system through Veche has given failure. Inrepparttar 126234 first centuries of Scandinavians board a lot of famous actions have been made in Russia. Main from it are creation of statehood and expansion of Christiania onrepparttar 126235 ancient Russian ground. But Scandinavians did not differ from Russians through some generations and were a reason for chaos of domestic wars. It was a major factor of Russia capture by Tatars. With all negatives that invasion fromrepparttar 126236 East carried Russia have

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