What is a Protocol? the communications between computers on a network

Written by Gianfranco Fracassi

What is a Protocol? A protocol is a set of rules that governsrepparttar communications between computers on a network. These rules include guidelines that regulaterepparttar 146210 following characteristics of a network: access method, allowed physical topologies, types of cabling, and speed of data transfer. Seerepparttar 146211 Topology and Cabling sections

of this tutorial for more information. The most common protocols are:

Ethernet LocalTalk Token Ring FDDI ATM Ethernet The Ethernet protocol is by farrepparttar 146212 most widely used. Ethernet uses an access method called CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection). This is a system where each computer listens torepparttar 146213 cable before sending anything throughrepparttar 146214 network. Ifrepparttar 146215 network is clear,repparttar 146216 computer will transmit. If some other node is already transmitting onrepparttar 146217 cable,repparttar 146218 computer will wait and try again whenrepparttar 146219 line is clear. Sometimes, two computers attempt to transmit atrepparttar 146220 same instant. When this happens a collision occurs. Each computer then backs off and waits a random amount of time before attempting to retransmit. With this access method, it is normal to have collisions. However,repparttar 146221 delay caused by collisions and retransmitting is very small and does not normally effectrepparttar 146222 speed of transmission onrepparttar 146223 network. The Ethernet protocol allows for linear bus, star, or tree topologies. Data can be transmitted over twisted pair, coaxial, or fiber optic cable at a speed of 10 Mbps. Fast Ethernet To allow for an increased speed of transmission,repparttar 146224 Ethernet protocol has developed a new standard that supports 100 Mbps. This is commonly called Fast Ethernet. Fast Ethernet requiresrepparttar 146225 use of different, more expensive network concentrators/hubs and network interface cards. In addition, category 5 twisted pair or fiber optic cable is necessary. Fast Ethernet is becoming common in schools that have been recently wired. Gigabit Ethernet The most recent development inrepparttar 146226 Ethernet standard is a protocol that has a transmission speed of 1 Gbps. Gigabit Ethernet is primarily used for backbones on a network at this time. Inrepparttar 146227 future, it will probably be used for workstation and server connections also. It can be used with both fiber optic cabling and copper. The 1000BaseTX,repparttar 146228 copper cable used for Gigabit Ethernet, is expected to becomerepparttar 146229 formal standard in 1999. LocalTalk LocalTalk is a network protocol that was developed by Apple Computer, Inc. for Macintosh computers. The method used by LocalTalk is called CSMA/CA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance). It is similar to CSMA/CD except that a computer signals its intent to transmit before it actually does so. LocalTalk adapters and special twisted pair cable can be used to connect a series of computers throughrepparttar 146230 serial port. The Macintosh operating system allowsrepparttar 146231 establishment of a peer-to-peer network withoutrepparttar 146232 need for additional software. Withrepparttar 146233 addition ofrepparttar 146234 server version of AppleShare software, a client/server network can be established. The LocalTalk protocol allows for linear bus, star, or tree topologies using twisted pair cable. A primary disadvantage of LocalTalk is speed. Its speed of transmission is only 230 Kbps.

How To Survive An Operating System Crash

Written by Patty Gale

"We apologize forrepparttar inconvenience, but Windows could not be accessed or located."

It happens torepparttar 146131 best of us. A complete operating system failure. One day you might turn on your p.c. and that dreadful message is on your screen as plain as day. You don't know what you could have possibly done, as your computer was working fine just a little while ago.

Panic is usuallyrepparttar 146132 first thing to set in. Something like an operating system failure can literally put home business owners out of business indefinitely. The cost and time involved in trying to repair a p.c. andrepparttar 146133 months or even years of lost information is overwhelming and frightening to think about.

This doesn't have to happen to you if you are prepared.

When you think about it, our businesses are atrepparttar 146134 mercy of technology. The technology is only as good as long as it's working properly. What a wonderful world we would live in if technology were flawless.

The reality is that systems fail. Computers are machines and machines sometimes break down. It doesn't get any simpler that than. We have no other choice than to be prepared for when those times come, especially IF we want to make sure our home business suffers very little down time.

There are some very easy things you can do right now to make ensure your peace of mind for your business. You need to be back up and running as quickly as possible inrepparttar 146135 event of an operating system crash.

1. Document everything including usernames, passwords, merchant account numbers, important websites and especially software unlock codes. Anything that is not written down on paper is subject to be lost.

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