Tuhotmosis PharaohsWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
The Tuthmosis Pharoahs
The ancient Egyptians had a tradition of repeating same name of their Pharoahs in different dynasties. Thus a father,son and grandson would have same name but with first , second or third after it.
The name TUTHMOSIS was given to four pharaohs in 18th dynasty. This dynasty was a strong one, a dynasty which also included Queeen Hatshipsut, one of most powerful queens on Egypt.
For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: www.kingtutshop.com Tuthmosis I was third king in 18th Dynasty.His mother was Semisene. His birth name we are told was Tuthmosis, meaning "Born of god Thoth", though this is a Greek version. His actual Egyptian name was Djehutymes I, but he is also sometimes referred to as Thutmose I, or Thutmosis I. His thrown name was A-Kheper-ka-re (Aakheperkara). He gained thrown at a fairly late age, and may have ruled from 1503-1491BC. Nevertheless, he staged a series of brilliant military campaigns that were to establish Egypt's 18th Dynasty. So effective were these efforts that we believe he must have started preparations of military operations during last years of Amenhotep I's rule. Ahmose son of Ebana, an admiral during Tuthmosis I's reign, tells us that a campaign into Nubia where he penetrated beyond Third Cataract was highly successful. Tuthmosis may have defeated Nubian chief in hand to hand combat and returned to Thebes with body of fallen chief hanging on prow of his ship. His greatest campaigns were in Delta and his battles against Syrians as he finally reached Euphrates River. This expedition opened new horizons that led later to Egypt's important role in he trade and diplomacy of Late Bronze Age Near East. Tuthmosis I brought Egypt a sense of stability and his military campaigns healed wounds of Thebians. It was by Mutnofret (Mutnefert), a minor queen who was sister of his principle wife, Ahmose, that his heir, Tuthmosis II was born. Before he had two sons that had died before him.However, his more famous offspring was Queen Hatshepsut, a daughter by Ahmose who would rule after her husband and brother's death. After death of Ahmose, he probably even took Hatshepsut as his own wife until his death. Ahmose may have also provided him with another daughter by name of Nefrubity who is depicted with Tuthmosis I and Ahmose in temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri. Tuthomosis II He was fourth king in 18th dynasty, son of Tuthomosis I. In order to strengthen his position and legitimize his rule, he was married to Hatshepsut, oldest daughter of Tuthmosis I and Queen Ahmose. She was very possibly older then Tuthmosis II. During this period, Hatshepsut also carried title, "God's Wife of Amun", a position she may have had even before death of Tuthmosis I. Hatshepsut would have been both Tuthmosis II's half sister and cousin. In light of history she became a much better known pharaoh then her husband. Tuthmosis II had only one son. Tuthmosis II must have realized ambitions of his wife, because he attempted to foster ascent of his son to throne by naming his son as his successor before he died. But upon Tuthmosis II's death, his son was still very young, so Hatshepsut took advantage of situation by at first naming herself as regent, and then taking on full role of pharaoh. He may have also had as many as two daughters by Hatshepsut. We are fairly sure one of them was named Neferure and another possible daughter named Neferubity. Tuthmosis II did not rule much as he was weak and he only ruled for thirteen years after which Queen Hatshipsut made a lot of changes. Tuthmosis III It took a while for Tuthmosis III to gain power as his stepmother and aunt was very powerful at that time.However when he did take reigns he was a very good ruler.
Tuthmosis III became a great pharaoh in his own right, and has been referred to as Napoleon of ancient Egypt.But perhaps is reputation is due to fact that his battles were recorded in great detail by archivist, royal scribe and army commander, Thanuny. The battles were recorded on inside walls surrounding granite sanctuary at Karnak. These events were recorded at Karnak because Tuthmosis's army marched under banner of god, Amun, and Amun's temples and estates would largely be beneficiary of spoils of Tuthmosis' wars. From inscriptions left on walls of temples we find that Tuthmosis started to have troubles from Prince Kadesh of Palestine and Syria. He of course due to his vast military training had to deal with all those things. Thutmose immediately set out with his army and crossing Sinai desert he marched to city of Gaza, which had remained loyal to Egypt. The events of campaign are well documented because they are engraved onto walls of temple of Karnak Tuthmosis III fought with considerable nerve and cunning.He marched to Gaza in ten days and planned battle to take Megiddo which was held by a rebellious prince named Kadesh. There were three possible approaches to Megiddo, two of which were fairly open, straightforward routes while third was through a narrow pass that soldiers would only be able to march through in single file. Though he was advised against this dangerous pass by his commanders, Tuthmosis not only took this dangerous route, but actually led troops through. Whether by luck, or gifted intuition this gamble paid off, for when he emerged from tight canyon, he saw that his enemies had arranged their armies to defend easier routes. In fact, he emerged between north and south wings of enemy's armies, and next day decisively beat them in battle. It apparently took a long siege (seven months) to take city of Megiddo, but rewards were great. The sudden and unexpected appearance of Egyptians in their rear forced allies to make a hasty re-deployment of their troops. There are said to have been over 300 allied kings, each with his own army, an immense force. However, Thutmose was determined and when allies saw him at head of his men leading them forward, they lost heart for fight and fled for city of Megiddo The spoils were considerable, and included 894 chariots, including two covered with gold, 200 suites of armor including two of bronze, as well as over 2,000 horses and 25,000 other animals. Tuthmosis III had marched from Thebes up Syrian coast fighting decisive battles, capturing three cities, and then returned back to Thebes. Over next 18 years, his armies would march against Syria every summer and by end of that period, he established Egyptian dominance over Palestine. At Karnak he records capture of 350 cities, and in 42nd year of his rule, Kadesh itself was finally taken. Thutmose III is compared with Napoleon but unlike Napoleon he never lost a battle. He conducted sixteen campaigns in Palestine, Syria and Nubia and his treatment of conquered was always humane. Syria and Palestine were obliged to keep peace and region as a whole experience an unprecedented degree of prosperity.
King NarmerWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Upper and Lower Egypt, or two lands. The first was founded in Lower Egypt, with Botu as its capital, Papyrus as its sign, and snake as its symbol. The Southern Kingdom had Nekhen as its capital, and Lotus as its sign. King Narmer was first to unite Upper and Lower Egypt giving birth to Egypt in 3100 B. c & laying foundation for first pharaonic dynasty ,which is beginning of first Egyptian Dynasty 0.
For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: www.kingtutshop.com
He was first king of two lands wearing White Crown of Upper Egypt (looks like a bowling pin), and Red Crown of Lower Egypt. . His rule marked beginning of written history and era of dynasties, which followed in succession until 30th Dynasty. The Egyptian Dynasty ended with suicide of Cleopatra, and Roman army under Octavian taking Egypt in 30 BC.
ĚThe Old Kingdom (2980 BC-2475 BC): During this era, principles of central government were established. Menes (Narmar) was called "the King of Both Lands and Bearer of Both Crowns". The unification of both kingdoms had a significant impact on development of Egypt in all aspects of life. Hieroglyphic writing was devised.
Kings were actively involved in securing country's borders. Trade between Egypt and Sudan was developed. Egypt, then embarked on a glorious period of its history, known as pyramid builder's age, where first pyramid of Saqqara was built. With flourishing of agriculture, industry and trade, first river fleet was introduced by Egyptians. With unification of Upper& Lower Egypt, it was necessary to establish a strong army whose headquarter was city of Menf. Narmar also established Egyptian first fleet in With beginning of third Pharaonic Dynasty in 2686 B.C, Egypt was exposed to manyraids by nomads on its eastern borders, thing that urged king Zosar to establish army with its own military traditions and its distinct banners. This army was regarded as first regular army in history, Later on, " Zosar " organized Egypt into districts where he set, companies. Moreover, he established his own royal army made up of corps, and established a substantial fleet as well. King Narmer is thought to have reigned c. 3150 BCE as first king of 1st dynasty (and/or last king of 0 dynasty) of a unified ancient Egypt. The rebus of his name as shown on his palette and on other inscriptions is composed of a chisel, thought to be read mr, above a catfish, thought to be read as n'r. King Narmer, or Catfish as he could also be called, appears thus on seal impressions from 1st Dynasty tombs of King Den (tomb) and King Ka (Tomb) at Abydos . Narmer's name and that of his possible predecessor Scorpion have also been found on pottery vessels from site of Minshat Abu Omar in eastern Delta.
Narmer's importance as probable unifier of Lower and Upper Egypt is indicated primarily by Palette and Macehead which are attributed to him. His name-rebus appear on both. But his power in region must have extended further, since Egyptian sherds inscribed with Narmer's name have also been found . The Narmer Palette was discovered by J.E.Quibell at Hierakonpolis in 1897-98. The obverse is divided into three registers, uppermost of which gives his name in a serekh flanked by human-faced bovines. The second register shows Narmer wearing White Crown of Upper Egypt smiting an enemy. The third register shows dead, nude enemies. On reverse upper register showing his name-serekh is repeated. The second register shows Narmer now wearing Red Crown of Lower Egypt, inspecting rows of nude, decapitated enemies. The third register shows a man mastering serpent-necked lions, and fourth register shows a bull destroying a town and trampling a dead enemy.