Tuhotmosis Pharaohs

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga


The Tuthmosis Pharoahs

The ancient Egyptians had a tradition of repeatingrepparttar same name of their Pharoahs in different dynasties. Thus a father,son and grandson would haverepparttar 109434 same name but with first , second or third after it.

The name TUTHMOSIS was given to four pharaohs inrepparttar 109435 18th dynasty. This dynasty was a strong one, a dynasty which also included Queeen Hatshipsut, one ofrepparttar 109436 most powerful queens on Egypt.

For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: www.kingtutshop.com Tuthmosis I wasrepparttar 109437 third king inrepparttar 109438 18th Dynasty.His mother was Semisene. His birth name we are told was Tuthmosis, meaning "Born ofrepparttar 109439 god Thoth", though this is a Greek version. His actual Egyptian name was Djehutymes I, but he is also sometimes referred to as Thutmose I, or Thutmosis I. His thrown name was A-Kheper-ka-re (Aakheperkara). He gainedrepparttar 109440 thrown at a fairly late age, and may have ruled from 1503-1491BC. Nevertheless, he staged a series of brilliant military campaigns that were to establish Egypt's 18th Dynasty. So effective were these efforts that we believe he must have started preparations ofrepparttar 109441 military operations duringrepparttar 109442 last years of Amenhotep I's rule. Ahmose son of Ebana, an admiral during Tuthmosis I's reign, tells us that a campaign into Nubia where he penetrated beyondrepparttar 109443 Third Cataract was highly successful. Tuthmosis may have defeatedrepparttar 109444 Nubian chief in hand to hand combat and returned to Thebes withrepparttar 109445 body ofrepparttar 109446 fallen chief hanging onrepparttar 109447 prow of his ship. His greatest campaigns were inrepparttar 109448 Delta and his battles againstrepparttar 109449 Syrians as he finally reachedrepparttar 109450 Euphrates River. This expedition opened new horizons that led later to Egypt's important role in he trade and diplomacy ofrepparttar 109451 Late Bronze Age Near East. Tuthmosis I brought Egypt a sense of stability and his military campaigns healedrepparttar 109452 wounds of Thebians. It was by Mutnofret (Mutnefert), a minor queen who wasrepparttar 109453 sister of his principle wife, Ahmose, that his heir, Tuthmosis II was born. Before he had two sons that had died before him.However, his more famous offspring was Queen Hatshepsut, a daughter by Ahmose who would rule after her husband and brother's death. Afterrepparttar 109454 death of Ahmose, he probably even took Hatshepsut as his own wife until his death. Ahmose may have also provided him with another daughter byrepparttar 109455 name of Nefrubity who is depicted with Tuthmosis I and Ahmose inrepparttar 109456 temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri. Tuthomosis II He wasrepparttar 109457 fourth king inrepparttar 109458 18th dynasty,repparttar 109459 son of Tuthomosis I. In order to strengthen his position and legitimize his rule, he was married to Hatshepsut,repparttar 109460 oldest daughter of Tuthmosis I and Queen Ahmose. She was very possibly older then Tuthmosis II. During this period, Hatshepsut also carriedrepparttar 109461 title, "God's Wife of Amun", a position she may have had even beforerepparttar 109462 death of Tuthmosis I. Hatshepsut would have been both Tuthmosis II's half sister and cousin. Inrepparttar 109463 light of history she became a much better known pharaoh then her husband. Tuthmosis II had only one son. Tuthmosis II must have realizedrepparttar 109464 ambitions of his wife, because he attempted to fosterrepparttar 109465 ascent of his son torepparttar 109466 throne by naming his son as his successor before he died. But upon Tuthmosis II's death, his son was still very young, so Hatshepsut took advantage ofrepparttar 109467 situation by at first naming herself as regent, and then taking onrepparttar 109468 full role ofrepparttar 109469 pharaoh. He may have also had as many as two daughters by Hatshepsut. We are fairly sure one of them was named Neferure and another possible daughter named Neferubity. Tuthmosis II did not rule much as he was weak and he only ruled for thirteen years after which Queen Hatshipsut made a lot of changes. Tuthmosis III It took a while for Tuthmosis III to gain power as his stepmother and aunt was very powerful at that time.However when he did takerepparttar 109470 reigns he was a very good ruler.

Tuthmosis III became a great pharaoh in his own right, and has been referred to asrepparttar 109471 Napoleon of ancient Egypt.But perhaps is reputation is due torepparttar 109472 fact that his battles were recorded in great detail byrepparttar 109473 archivist, royal scribe and army commander, Thanuny. The battles were recorded onrepparttar 109474 inside walls surroundingrepparttar 109475 granite sanctuary at Karnak. These events were recorded at Karnak because Tuthmosis's army marched underrepparttar 109476 banner ofrepparttar 109477 god, Amun, and Amun's temples and estates would largely berepparttar 109478 beneficiary ofrepparttar 109479 spoils of Tuthmosis' wars. From inscriptions left on walls ofrepparttar 109480 temples we find that Tuthmosis started to have troubles from Prince Kadesh of Palestine and Syria. He of course due to his vast military training had to deal with all those things. Thutmose immediately set out with his army and crossingrepparttar 109481 Sinai desert he marched torepparttar 109482 city of Gaza, which had remained loyal to Egypt. The events ofrepparttar 109483 campaign are well documented because they are engraved ontorepparttar 109484 walls ofrepparttar 109485 temple of Karnak Tuthmosis III fought with considerable nerve and cunning.He marched to Gaza in ten days and plannedrepparttar 109486 battle to take Megiddo which was held by a rebellious prince named Kadesh. There were three possible approaches to Megiddo, two of which were fairly open, straightforward routes whilerepparttar 109487 third was through a narrow pass that soldiers would only be able to march through in single file. Though he was advised against this dangerous pass by his commanders, Tuthmosis not only took this dangerous route, but actually ledrepparttar 109488 troops through. Whether by luck, or gifted intuition this gamble paid off, for when he emerged fromrepparttar 109489 tight canyon, he saw that his enemies had arranged their armies to defendrepparttar 109490 easier routes. In fact, he emerged betweenrepparttar 109491 north and south wings ofrepparttar 109492 enemy's armies, andrepparttar 109493 next day decisively beat them in battle. It apparently took a long siege (seven months) to takerepparttar 109494 city of Megiddo, butrepparttar 109495 rewards were great. The sudden and unexpected appearance of Egyptians in their rear forcedrepparttar 109496 allies to make a hasty re-deployment of their troops. There are said to have been over 300 allied kings, each with his own army, an immense force. However, Thutmose was determined and whenrepparttar 109497 allies saw him atrepparttar 109498 head of his men leading them forward, they lost heart forrepparttar 109499 fight and fled forrepparttar 109500 city of Megiddo The spoils were considerable, and included 894 chariots, including two covered with gold, 200 suites of armor including two of bronze, as well as over 2,000 horses and 25,000 other animals. Tuthmosis III had marched from Thebes uprepparttar 109501 Syrian coast fighting decisive battles, capturing three cities, and then returned back to Thebes. Overrepparttar 109502 next 18 years, his armies would march against Syria every summer and byrepparttar 109503 end of that period, he established Egyptian dominance over Palestine. At Karnak he recordsrepparttar 109504 capture of 350 cities, and inrepparttar 109505 42nd year of his rule, Kadesh itself was finally taken. Thutmose III is compared with Napoleon but unlike Napoleon he never lost a battle. He conducted sixteen campaigns in Palestine, Syria and Nubia and his treatment ofrepparttar 109506 conquered was always humane. Syria and Palestine were obliged to keeprepparttar 109507 peace andrepparttar 109508 region as a whole experience an unprecedented degree of prosperity.

King Narmer

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga


Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Upper and Lower Egypt, orrepparttar two lands. The first was founded in Lower Egypt, with Botu as its capital,repparttar 109433 Papyrus as its sign, andrepparttar 109434 snake as its symbol. The Southern Kingdom had Nekhen as its capital, andrepparttar 109435 Lotus as its sign. King Narmer wasrepparttar 109436 first to unite Upper and Lower Egypt giving birth to Egypt in 3100 B. c & layingrepparttar 109437 foundation forrepparttar 109438 first pharaonic dynasty ,which isrepparttar 109439 beginning ofrepparttar 109440 first Egyptian Dynasty 0.

For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: www.kingtutshop.com

He wasrepparttar 109441 first king ofrepparttar 109442 two lands wearingrepparttar 109443 White Crown of Upper Egypt (looks like a bowling pin), andrepparttar 109444 Red Crown of Lower Egypt. . His rule markedrepparttar 109445 beginning of written history andrepparttar 109446 era of dynasties, which followed in succession untilrepparttar 109447 30th Dynasty. The Egyptian Dynasty ended withrepparttar 109448 suicide of Cleopatra, andrepparttar 109449 Roman army under Octavian taking Egypt in 30 BC.

ĚThe Old Kingdom (2980 BC-2475 BC): During this era, principles of central government were established. Menes (Narmar) was called "the King of Both Lands and Bearer of Both Crowns". The unification of both kingdoms had a significant impact onrepparttar 109450 development of Egypt in all aspects of life. Hieroglyphic writing was devised.

Kings were actively involved in securingrepparttar 109451 country's borders. Trade between Egypt and Sudan was developed. Egypt, then embarked on a glorious period of its history, known asrepparttar 109452 pyramid builder's age, whererepparttar 109453 first pyramid of Saqqara was built. Withrepparttar 109454 flourishing of agriculture, industry and trade,repparttar 109455 first river fleet was introduced byrepparttar 109456 Egyptians. Withrepparttar 109457 unification of Upper& Lower Egypt, it was necessary to establish a strong army whose headquarter wasrepparttar 109458 city of Menf. Narmar also establishedrepparttar 109459 Egyptian first fleet in Withrepparttar 109460 beginning ofrepparttar 109461 third Pharaonic Dynasty in 2686 B.C, Egypt was exposed to manyraids by repparttar 109462 nomads on its eastern borders,repparttar 109463 thing that urged king Zosar to establish army with its own military traditions and its distinct banners. This army was regarded asrepparttar 109464 first regular army in history, Later on, " Zosar " organized Egypt into districts where he set, companies. Moreover, he established his own royal army made up of corps, and established a substantial fleet as well. King Narmer is thought to have reigned c. 3150 BCE as first king ofrepparttar 109465 1st dynasty (and/or last king ofrepparttar 109466 0 dynasty) of a unified ancient Egypt. The rebus of his name as shown on his palette and on other inscriptions is composed of a chisel, thought to be read mr, above a catfish, thought to be read as n'r. King Narmer, or Catfish as he could also be called, appears thus on seal impressions fromrepparttar 109467 1st Dynasty tombs of King Den (tomb) and King Ka (Tomb) at Abydos . Narmer's name and that of his possible predecessor Scorpion have also been found on pottery vessels fromrepparttar 109468 site of Minshat Abu Omar inrepparttar 109469 eastern Delta.

Narmer's importance asrepparttar 109470 probable unifier of Lower and Upper Egypt is indicated primarily byrepparttar 109471 Palette andrepparttar 109472 Macehead which are attributed to him. His name-rebus appear on both. But his power inrepparttar 109473 region must have extended further, since Egyptian sherds inscribed with Narmer's name have also been found . The Narmer Palette was discovered by J.E.Quibell at Hierakonpolis in 1897-98. The obverse is divided into three registers, uppermost of which gives his name in a serekh flanked by human-faced bovines. The second register shows Narmer wearingrepparttar 109474 White Crown of Upper Egypt smiting an enemy. The third register shows dead, nude enemies. Onrepparttar 109475 reverserepparttar 109476 upper register showing his name-serekh is repeated. The second register shows Narmer now wearingrepparttar 109477 Red Crown of Lower Egypt, inspecting rows of nude, decapitated enemies. The third register shows a man mastering serpent-necked lions, andrepparttar 109478 fourth register shows a bull destroying a town and trampling a dead enemy.

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