Transducers - The Remarkable Changers

Written by Thomas Yoon

Complex control systems all make use of signals that can be easily measured and altered remotely. Automatically operated machines or actuators need to be powered either by electrical motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders.

The most common signals sent out from a transducer are electrical current or voltage and pneumatic pressure. These signals are easily translated by controllers. Visual measuring devices like liquid bulb thermometers are not able to be used in automatic control systems because there are no electrical or pneumatic signals.

However, when some other component is added to it to enable it to give a corresponding signal, thenrepparttar measuring unit becomes a transducer.

A transducer is a device to convert a signal (representing a physical quantity) of one form into a corresponding signal of another form, retainingrepparttar 133416 amplitude variations of energy being converted.

Just as an example, a microphone is a sound transducer (acoustic to electrical) and a loudspeaker is an electrical transducer (electrical to acoustic). A transducer may be an integral part ofrepparttar 133417 measuring unit, for example pressure to displacement in a Bourdon pressure gauge. It may also be a separate unit converter especially suitable to changerepparttar 133418 signal to a better form for remote transmission, e.g. displacement to electrical in a differential transformer.

Vital Chemicals for Cooling Towers

Written by Thomas Yoon

Cooling towers are used to cool down hot condenser water taken from chillers of air conditioning systems. The cooling effect of cooling towers are attributed torepparttar evaporation ofrepparttar 133415 water when it is blown through by air fromrepparttar 133416 fans.

After some time of circulating throughrepparttar 133417 cooling towers,repparttar 133418 water becomes more and more concentrated withrepparttar 133419 dissolved salts inrepparttar 133420 water. The concentrated water has to be drained off and fresh new water added intorepparttar 133421 system to make it less saline.

However, when fresh water is added, it will not have any passivation chemicals to protectrepparttar 133422 piping andrepparttar 133423 component condenser parts from corrosion. So chemicals are added to protectrepparttar 133424 piping andrepparttar 133425 machinery.

For cooling tower water,repparttar 133426 chemical used serve 2 basic functions - a corrosion inhibitor and a biocide.

The corrosion inhibitor is for preventing corrosion inrepparttar 133427 piping andrepparttar 133428 related parts. The biocide is to prevent growth of algae, bacteria and other micro organisms.

Every water treatment chemical company has its own formula and special concortions. A typical corrosion inhibitor may contain about 1 - 10% Potassium Hydroxide or similar alkali. This is then further diluted when mixed withrepparttar 133429 water inrepparttar 133430 cooling tower. Being an alkali, it will neutralize any acids found in repparttar 133431 water that can cause corrosion to occur.

The cooling tower is installed outdoors. Withrepparttar 133432 ample warmth fromrepparttar 133433 chiller, fresh air and sunlight,repparttar 133434 water it contains is a very ideal medium forrepparttar 133435 growth of micro organism.

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