Thyroid illness in cats and dogs

Written by Nick Carmichael

Common clinical signs of hypothyroidism in dogs include weight gain, lethargy, reduced exercise tolerance and poor coat quality. However,repparttar disease affects almost all body systems and as a result a wide variety of signs can potentially be associated with this endocrinopathy. Diagnosis is complicated byrepparttar 125822 fact that many non-thyroidal illnesses (NTI) may present with similar features to hypothyroidism and can result in reduced thyroid output. There is no perfect lab test forrepparttar 125823 diagnosis of hypothyroidism andrepparttar 125824 available alternatives all have their own strengths and weaknesses that need to be taken into account. Oftenrepparttar 125825 best approach is to use multiple tests that complement one another and help to improve diagnostic accuracy.

Where hypothyroidism is a consideration, makingrepparttar 125826 diagnosis requires three distinct steps:

1. Exclude non-thyroidal illness (NTI).

By excluding other disease conditions firstrepparttar 125827 predictive value ofrepparttar 125828 thyroid tests will be significantly increased. In practical terms this phase may include a profile including FBC and smear evaluation and where necessary screening tests for Cushings. The latter can be important as both endocrinopathies can result in alopecia, weight gain and marked reductions in T4.

Lemon Tetra

Written by Linda Paquette

Glassily transparent,repparttar lemon tetra (hyphessobrycon pulchripinnis) could appear to be just a sunbeam flashing through your community tank if not for background elements like plants and driftwood. Another member ofrepparttar 125821 large characin clan,repparttar 125822 lemon tetra has a fairly elongated body like its smaller relativerepparttar 125823 neon tetra and like neons and other characins,repparttar 125824 lemon tetra does best if kept in small schools of six to eight fish.

One ofrepparttar 125825 most distinguishing features ofrepparttar 125826 lemon tetra is their large eyes. The upper part ofrepparttar 125827 lemon tetra’s eye is brilliant red, which is a sharp contrast torepparttar 125828 yellow pastels it displays in its body colors. Actually, though,repparttar 125829 lemon tetra is quite colorful on close inspection. Body coloring is a delicate pale yellow, flanks are silver, andrepparttar 125830 leading edge ofrepparttar 125831 anal fin is shiny-bright-yellow and sharply divided fromrepparttar 125832 other rays, which are black. Inrepparttar 125833 male,repparttar 125834 rest ofrepparttar 125835 anal fin is broad and fringed in black, a characteristic that is missing inrepparttar 125836 plumper female. As many male characins do,repparttar 125837 male lemon tetras also have tiny hooks on their anal fins. Both males and females haverepparttar 125838 tetras’ characteristic adipose fin, which is also pale yellow in color.

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