## The Superultramodern Scientific Explanation of the Fundamental Forces

Written by Dr Kedar Joshi

Part I

The particle theorists' explanation of fundamental forces -

1) Explanation of force of repulsion -

'In quantum mechanics, forces or interactions between matter particles are all supposed to be carried by particles of integer spin - 0, 1, or 2. What happens is that a matter particle, such as an electron or a quark, emits a force - carrying particle. The recoil from this emission changes velocity of matter particle. The force - carrying particle then collides with another matter particle and is absorbed. This collision changes velocity of second particle, just as if there had been a force between two matter particles.' ( See Hawking 1996, p. 90 )

2) Explanation of force of attraction -

It is same as description of force of attraction. For example, 'The gravitational force of sun on earth is pictured in particle theories as being caused by emission of a graviton by a particle in sun and its absorption by a particle in earth.' ( See Hawking 1996, p. 217 )

a) Deficiency -

With reference to particle theorists' description of force of repulsion it is quite simple to see that its explanation of force of attraction is totally inadequate. By emission and absorption of graviton two matter particles would rather go away ( or be repulsed ) from each other.

## Conmathematical Resolution of Russell's Paradox

Written by Dr Kedar Joshi