The Superultramodern Scientific Explanation of the Fundamental ForcesWritten by Dr Kedar Joshi
Part IThe particle theorists' explanation of fundamental forces  1) Explanation of force of repulsion  'In quantum mechanics, forces or interactions between matter particles are all supposed to be carried by particles of integer spin  0, 1, or 2. What happens is that a matter particle, such as an electron or a quark, emits a force  carrying particle. The recoil from this emission changes velocity of matter particle. The force  carrying particle then collides with another matter particle and is absorbed. This collision changes velocity of second particle, just as if there had been a force between two matter particles.' ( See Hawking 1996, p. 90 ) 2) Explanation of force of attraction  It is same as description of force of attraction. For example, 'The gravitational force of sun on earth is pictured in particle theories as being caused by emission of a graviton by a particle in sun and its absorption by a particle in earth.' ( See Hawking 1996, p. 217 ) a) Deficiency  With reference to particle theorists' description of force of repulsion it is quite simple to see that its explanation of force of attraction is totally inadequate. By emission and absorption of graviton two matter particles would rather go away ( or be repulsed ) from each other.
  Conmathematical Resolution of Russell's ParadoxWritten by Dr Kedar Joshi
Russell's Paradox  'A paradox uncovered by Bertrand Russell in 1901 that forced a reformulation of set theory. One version of Russell's paradox, known as barber paradox, considers a town with a male barber who, every day, shaves every man who doesn't shave himself, and no one else. Does barber shave himself ? The scenario as described requires that barber shave himself if and only if he does not ! Russell's paradox, in its original form considers set of all sets that aren't members of themselves. Most sets, it would seem, aren't members of themselves  for example, set of elephants is not an elephant  and so could be said to be "runofthemill". However, some "selfswallowing" sets do contain themselves as members, such as set of all sets, or set of all things except Julius Caesar, and so on. Clearly, every set is either runofthemill or selfswallowing, and no set can be both. But then, asked Russell, what about set S of all sets that aren't members of themselves ? Somehow, S is neither a member of itself nor not a member of itself.' ( See David Darling : The Universal Book of Mathematics, 2004 ) Conmathematical Resolution  The term 'Conmathematics' means conceptual mathematics ( invented by Dr. Kedar Joshi ( b. 1979 ), Cambridge, UK ). It is a meta  mathematical system that defines structure of superultramodern mathematics. It essentially involves a heavy or profound conceptual approach which is in striking contrast with traditional symbolic or set theoretic approach.
