The Pathophysiology of Tetanus

Written by Wong Lai Teng

Tetanus is an acute, often fatal disease caused by an exotoxin produced in a wound by Clostridium tetani. Clostridium tetani is a gram-positive, nonencapsulated, motile, obligatively anaerobic bacillus. It exists in vegetative and sporulated forms. Spores are highly resistant to disinfections by chemical or heat, but vegetative forms are susceptible torepparttar bactericidal effect of heat, chemical disinfectants, and a number of antibiotics.

Clostridium tetani is a noninvasive organism. It is found in soil and inrepparttar 147799 intestine and feces of horses, sheep, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, guinea pigs and chicken. Manure-treated soil may contain large numbers of spores too.

Tetanus occurs after spores or vegetative bacteria gain access to tissues and produce toxin locally. The usual mode of entry is trough a puncture wound or laceration. Tetanus may also follow elective surgery, burn wounds, otitis media, dental infection, abortion and pregnancy. Neonatal tetanus usually follows infection ofrepparttar 147800 umbilical stump.

Inrepparttar 147801 presence of anaerobic conditions,repparttar 147802 spores germinate. Toxins,including tetanolysin (which potentiates infection) and tetanospasmin (a potent neurotoxin) are produced. Tetanospasmin, often referred to as tetanus toxin, causes clinical tetanus. The toxin produced is disseminated throughrepparttar 147803 bloodstream and lymphatic system. However, it does not enterrepparttar 147804 central nervous system through this route, as it cannot crossrepparttar 147805 blood brain barrier except atrepparttar 147806 fourth ventricle. The toxin is exclusively taken up byrepparttar 147807 neuromuscular junction, where it migrates retrograde transynaptically atrepparttar 147808 rate 75-250mm/day, a process which takes 3-14 days, protected from neutralizing antitoxin, predominantly to inhibitory synapses to preventrepparttar 147809 release of acetylcholine.

ROSEMARY FLOWER CANDIES (Rosemarinus Officinalis)

Written by Simon Mitchell

When a herb or plant hasrepparttar designation 'officinalis' it means it has been recognised to have medicinal qualities. 'Rosemarinus', so called because of marine connections (colour of sea - grows by sea eg Mediterranean) is possiblyrepparttar 147763 best example of a herb that we commonly grow that has extensive folklore and many attributed medicinal values. It was beloved byrepparttar 147764 Romans, who bought it torepparttar 147765 UK from Turkey, they believed this valuable herb could preserve dead bodies from corruption and it was often strewn or grown in graveyards and around tombs. It was well known torepparttar 147766 Tudors as a stimulant torepparttar 147767 system. In 'The Garden of Health' (1579) William Langham writes: "Carryrepparttar 147768 flowers about thee to make thee merry and glad and well beloved of all men...hangrepparttar 147769 flowers on thy bed and place Rosemary inrepparttar 147770 bath to make thee lusty, lively, joyful, strong and young. To comfortrepparttar 147771 heart steep Rosemary flowers in rose water and drink it".

Gerard agrees in his 1636 Herbal: "The flowers of Rosemary, made up into lozenges with sugar and eaten makerepparttar 147772 heart merry, quickenrepparttar 147773 spirits and make them more lively". He also notes that Rosemary water acts as a breath freshener. Rosemary has long been recognised as a valuable heart and liver tonic and its use can help to reduce high blood pressure. It has been used inrepparttar 147774 treatment of nervous complaints, digestive disorders and menstrual pains. Rosemary is a symbol of constancy in love because it remains fresh and fragrant when cut, longer most other evergreens. For this reason it was often used for solemn occasions such as weddings or funerals - "Be it for my bridal or my burial". As in Shakespeare's Hamlet, Rosemary is for remembrance and inrepparttar 147775 language of flowersrepparttar 147776 gift of Rosemary means "Never will your memory fade". Ancient myth has it that 'Where Rosemary flourishes -repparttar 147777 woman rules'. Rosemary is sometimes used in psychic work as an aid to concentration, memory and mental steadyness. Underrepparttar 147778 pillow or overrepparttar 147779 bed its delicious aroma is said to prevent nightmares.

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