The Importance Of Cell Phones In Modern Society

Written by Keith Kingston

Cell phones have become a necessity for many people throughoutrepparttar world. The ability to keep in touch with family, business associates, and access to email are only a few ofrepparttar 107954 reasons forrepparttar 107955 increasing importance of cell phones. Today's technically advanced cell phones are capable of not only receiving and placing phone calls, but storing data, taking pictures, and can even be used as walkie talkies, to name just a few ofrepparttar 107956 available options.

When cell phones were first introduced torepparttar 107957 public, they were bulky, expensive, and some even required a base unit that had to be transported along withrepparttar 107958 phone. Good reception was a major problem and in general, early cell phones could only be used in certain locations wererepparttar 107959 signal was particularly strong. As cell phone technology advanced,repparttar 107960 difficult in using them became less of a problem. Today, cell phone reception has improved greatly due torepparttar 107961 use of satellites and wireless services. As cell phones improved and became simple to use,repparttar 107962 importance of cell phones increased accordingly.

Cell phones arerepparttar 107963 perfect way to stay connected with others and providerepparttar 107964 user with a sense of security. Inrepparttar 107965 event of emergency, having a cell phone can allow help to reach you quickly and could possibly save lives. However,repparttar 107966 importance of cell phones goes way beyond personal safety. Modern cell phones are capable of internet access, sending and receiving photos and files, and some cell phones are equipped with GPS technology, allowing for use in most locations aroundrepparttar 107967 world and allowingrepparttar 107968 cell phone to be found orrepparttar 107969 user located inrepparttar 107970 event of loss or emergency.

Knowledge Moves

Written by Jack Boulton

‘Knowledge comes from, and is drawn into, different organisational structures. Atrepparttar same time,repparttar 107953 notion that knowledge travels… Invites one to reconstruct communities in its wake, tracing connections afterrepparttar 107954 fact.’ (Strathern 2004: 15).

We are surrounded by knowledge in different forms. Although your own personal understanding of technology may not match that of, say, a computer programmer,repparttar 107955 computer you are using to read this piece – or, indeed,repparttar 107956 printer you used to print it – arerepparttar 107957 products of applied knowledge, products which become symbols in a particular context. Your computer may mean one thing – or nothing – to you, but to someone else in a different place it means something else. The computer programmer is perhaps a good example of how one form of knowledge can be turned on its head and transformed into something else. The programmer usesrepparttar 107958 computer to metamorphose his knowledge of programming into a piece of software which in turn is used by another to transform their knowledge… And so on. This transformation – flow – of knowledge is common in contemporary society. We are part of a culture which is obsessed with information. I intend here to describe how information is produced, particularly scientific facts, using examples from Power (1997) and Latour and Woolgar (1979). I will also use evidence from Strathern (2004), Tsoukas (1997) and Latour (1999) to illustrate how knowledge changes meaning as it travels.

Constructing Fact. In Laboratory Life (1979), Latour and Woolgar apply sociological theory to their ethnography of a scientific laboratory. They successfully tracerepparttar 107959 construction of a scientific fact torepparttar 107960 creation of order out of disorder. To them,repparttar 107961 fundamental feature of a ‘fact’ is that it does not appear to be constructed by any outside forces: it is a taken-for-granted statement unflawed by modality. However they point out that inrepparttar 107962 laboratory situation,repparttar 107963 environment can be broken down into ‘specific histories’ which have enabled items such as scientific equipment to become available at a certain point in time. Bachelard (1953) refers to laboratory equipment as ‘reified theory’, that is, that each piece of equipment is a construct of a theory that has been proven factual at a previous point in time.

Auditing People. The concept ofrepparttar 107964 ‘audit society’ was pinpointed by Michael Power (1996, 1997) and concerns a very particular pattern of knowledge designed to ‘develop essentially similar measures or conclusions from an examination ofrepparttar 107965 same evidence, data or records’ (American Accounting Association 1966: 10). Essentiallyrepparttar 107966 audit is a process by which information is gathered in order to verify that something is happening as it should do, and/or to suggest methods by which this activity can be adjusted in order to function more effectively. Inrepparttar 107967 area of health and medicine, one use of audit data is ‘to stimulate more effective use of increasingly limited resources by creating an element of competition between those who supply medical services… And those who must purchase those services.’ (Power 1997: 104). Tsoukas (1997) also states that ‘… In a modern hospitalrepparttar 107968 sick person is turned into an information-rich patient; information about his or her illness can be systematically gathered –repparttar 107969 information speaks for, describes, representsrepparttar 107970 patient. And whenrepparttar 107971 NHS computerises its files, a patient can be emailed, so to speak, from one part ofrepparttar 107972 country torepparttar 107973 other.’ (1997: 833).

Here already we can see that information is onrepparttar 107974 move. From its origination withrepparttar 107975 patient, an illness is reduced to a number (for example, an ICD-10 [1] code) and then moved firstly to another part ofrepparttar 107976 hospital and then to somewhere completely different. The illness itself will have significant meaning torepparttar 107977 patient, whilstrepparttar 107978 ICD-10 code will have a different meaning depending on who is usingrepparttar 107979 data. Another example isrepparttar 107980 QALY (Quality-Adjusted Life Year) which is calculated using patient-reported data obtained by using various measures and tests in interview situations [2] (Hyland 1997). The QALY is a figure between 0 and 1, and is an indication of how good or bad a medical treatment is based solely on how long it keeps a patient alive for and at how high a quality of life. Whereasrepparttar 107981 experience of illness is likely to have a significant meaning inrepparttar 107982 life ofrepparttar 107983 patient, it is equally likely thatrepparttar 107984 QALY will have very little meaning to them. It will, however, be of significant interest to a health economist or to individuals working withinrepparttar 107985 field of medicine. Of course I am not striving to point out that information is interesting to different people. What is important here that it is essentiallyrepparttar 107986 same information that is undergoing a process of change as it moves around. It is also worth pointing out that after it has undergone its first change it is unlikely to be of interest torepparttar 107987 person responsible for reporting it.

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