The History of Bakelite

Written by Sher Matsen

Dr. Leo Baekland, a scientist, was responsible forrepparttar discovery of bakelite. He was born in Belgian. In 1889 he immigratedrepparttar 148570 the USA hoping for better career opportunities. In 1907 he was working as independent chemist when by accident he discoveredrepparttar 148571 compound of carbolic acid and formaldehyde. When he tried to reheatrepparttar 148572 solidified compound he discovered it would not melt no matter how highrepparttar 148573 temperature.

Shortly after he trademarked “Bakelite” as well as two other variations “catalin” and “marblette” which today are also referred to as bakelite. Bakelite wasrepparttar 148574 first synthetic plastic. Because of its durability and beauty its uses were simply endless, it grew in popularity very quickly and within 15 years it had takenrepparttar 148575 world by storm. You could find everything from electrical plugs, to ornate jewelry made from bakelite. It was even used onrepparttar 148576 dashboard face ofrepparttar 148577 Mercedes Benz car.

It could be produced in a wide array of colors, but most common where white, brown, green and red. Bakelite dating back torepparttar 148578 1920s-1940’s has oxidized and developed a wonderful patina that is sometime a completely different hue thanrepparttar 148579 original color. For example, White is often seen as butterscotch, light blue changes to forest green, pink turns to orange.

Because of this invention, Dr Beakeland is seen asrepparttar 148580 father ofrepparttar 148581 present plastic industry. The costume jewelry fromrepparttar 148582 1920’s-1940’s bakelite era is highly sought after. So how do you determine if it is actually made of bakelite? There are a couple of fairly simple tests. Although not full proof they work pretty well. Smell – When bakelite is heated it has a very strong odor which comes fromrepparttar 148583 carbolic acid inrepparttar 148584 composition. On some pieces you can releaserepparttar 148585 smell simply by rubbing them hard with your thumb and creating heat. Others will need very hot water to releaserepparttar 148586 odor. Still on othersrepparttar 148587 odor is so faint you may not detect it. Sound – When you tap two bakelite pieces together they will make a deep clunking sound, rather thanrepparttar 148588 higher pitched clack of acrylic or Lucite plastics. This test isrepparttar 148589 most unreliable as it is difficult to interpretrepparttar 148590 sound becauserepparttar 148591 density ofrepparttar 148592 items affectsrepparttar 148593 sound you hear. Hot Pin Test – Bakelite is a thermoset plastic so it cannot be remolded with heat. To test if a piece is bakelite get a very very hot pin from an open flame source, then touchrepparttar 148594 pin torepparttar 148595 item. If it is bakelite it will not penetrate. It may give offrepparttar 148596 acid smell and it may leave a purple burn mark. Ifrepparttar 148597 pin penetrates or meltsrepparttar 148598 plastic then it is not bakelite. Use caution when doing this test as it can devaluerepparttar 148599 bakelite piece considerable, and it may do serious damage to other types of plastic shouldrepparttar 148600 piece turn out not to be bakelite. If you proceed with this test be sure to find a very inconspicuous spot. Also ifrepparttar 148601 material should be celluloid, it is very flammable and can be very dangerous. If you suspectrepparttar 148602 piece may be celluloid I recommend you “do not” conduct this test. When ever you are conducting this test you should wearrepparttar 148603 appropriate safety equipment such as eye goggles and gloves. Formula 409 or Scrubbing Bubbles or Simichrome – this product works very well to test whether an item is bakelite. Make surerepparttar 148604 item is clean, wetrepparttar 148605 end of a Q-tip with Formula 409 then touch it torepparttar 148606 piece. Ifrepparttar 148607 Q-tip turns yellow thenrepparttar 148608 piece is bakelite. If you believe a piece is bakelite but it doesn’t passrepparttar 148609 409 test don’t count it out. Sometimes polished bakelite will not react or passrepparttar 148610 test.

History of Earrings

Written by Sher Matsen

Earrings – I think of them asrepparttar finishing touch to your look. They complete your fashion statement. There are earrings for all occasions –repparttar 148569 board room, work, casual outings, your wedding, a night onrepparttar 148570 town, or a day atrepparttar 148571 beach. They can bring out your softer feminine side,repparttar 148572 sexy goddess, or present simple charm, sophistication and elegance From Elizabeth Taylor to Meg Ryan to Dave Navarro to Usher – today earrings are a fashion statement for both men and women. The first pair of earrings has been dated back to 2500 BC. Onlyrepparttar 148573 wealth and those of royal lines could afford expensive jewelry back then. There are all types of earrings – chandelier earrings, dangle earrings, hoop earrings, stud earrings, button earrings, and droplet earrings to name just a few. Earrings come in all types of materials and metals. Gold, silver, gemstones, plastics, bakelite, copper, diamonds, paste, pearls, faux stones, or glass. The list goes on and on. What ever your desires there is a pair of earrings out there waiting for you. The oldest earrings ever unearthed by archaeologists were discovered in Iraq inrepparttar 148574 royal graves and date to about 2,500 BC. Back to 3000 BC there were two types of earrings:repparttar 148575 hoop, andrepparttar 148576 more elaborate pendant. From 1559 B.C. to 1085 B in Egypt earplugs became very fashionable. These type of piercings and earrings are seen even on King Tutankhamen. Inrepparttar 148577 Dark Ages poverty prevailed and metal jewelry sharply declined although designs were preserved for later use. Duringrepparttar 148578 Roman Empire wealthy women used earrings to show off their rich status. Byrepparttar 148579 2nd century AD gemstones such as sapphires, emeralds, and aquamarines were used regularly. Duringrepparttar 148580 Byzantine period which ran from330-1200 AD earrings took a back burner to more elaborate body ornamentation. Inrepparttar 148581 Middle Ages earrings become almost non-existent because ofrepparttar 148582 elaborate hair styles, and headdresses which were ever so popular. Duringrepparttar 148583 16th century in Italy high collars disappeared and hair was being worn up and away fromrepparttar 148584 face, so earrings began to make a comeback. In other parts ofrepparttar 148585 world such as England and France it would be another 100 years or so beforerepparttar 148586 high collars disappeared. As time progressedrepparttar 148587 design of earrings became much more complex. Around 1660repparttar 148588 girandole earring made its appearance remaining very popular forrepparttar 148589 next couple of centuries. The girandole earrings were extremely large and heavy because ofrepparttar 148590 metal content [gold or silver] andrepparttar 148591 amount of gems. Made of 3 pear shaped drops on a hook. The weight was known to cause elongated ear lobes. Inrepparttar 148592 latter part ofrepparttar 148593 18th centuryrepparttar 148594 pendeloque earrings became popular. They were longer thanrepparttar 148595 girandole earrings but much lighter. They wererepparttar 148596 balance forrepparttar 148597 high hairdos and big wigs that were being worn.

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