The Curious History Of Wine Consumption In America

Written by Ben Bicais

The history of wine consumption in America has been frought with starts, stops, and inconsistencies. The American population has always had a love-hate relationship with alcohol. Historic prohibitionist attitudes amongst much ofrepparttar American population have blurredrepparttar 116220 line between moderate wine consumption and detrimental alcoholism. As a result, regular, moderate consumption of wine byrepparttar 116221 American public continues to face ideological and legal impediments.

The History of Wine Consumption Duringrepparttar 116222 Colonial Years

Since its origins,repparttar 116223 history of wine consumption in America has been both encouraged and despised by different demographic groups. Spanish missionaries producedrepparttar 116224 earliest New World wine duringrepparttar 116225 early 17th Century. Shortly thereafter, French immigrants began to cultivate grapes inrepparttar 116226 Hudson River Valley. They made wine, juice, and preserves.

The early history of wine consumption in America was dominated by immigrants whom were primarily Catholic, and of Central or Southern European descent. The bulk of wine-drinking immigrants came fromrepparttar 116227 wine loving nations of France, Italy, Germany, and Spain. They descended from cultural traditions that valued social wine consumption withrepparttar 116228 evening meal.

The aforementioned wine drinkers were counterbalanced by immigrants from Northern Europe. Many held Puritan belief systems that discouraged or banned alcohol consumption of any kind. The nativist movements ofrepparttar 116229 early 18th Century cast suspician on immigrant groups that retained Old World customs and did not entirely assimilate into American society.

Wine consumption was a lightning rod for these discriminatory points of view. Although not accurate, alcoholism was seen as a problem only associated with certain ethnic groups that enjoyed wine. Whiskey and beer wasrepparttar 116230 actual source of vast majority of problematic inebriation. Nonetheless, early prohibitionist forces were very effective at linking wine torepparttar 116231 ills of American society.

History of Wine Consumption Duringrepparttar 116232 19th Century

Inrepparttar 116233 1830s, Americans consumed massive amounts of whiskey and beer. Alcoholism was extremely widespread and was affectingrepparttar 116234 stability ofrepparttar 116235 American family. Husbands spent time inrepparttar 116236 saloons instead of with their families, and rampant drunkedness increased instances of philandering and crime.

Ironically, as Prohibitionist fervor gained national momentum inrepparttar 116237 nineteenth century,repparttar 116238 American wine industry boomed. From 1860-1880, Phylloxera devastatedrepparttar 116239 vineyards of France. California wine production greatly increased to fillrepparttar 116240 international void. Huge tracts of vineyards were planted in Southern California to satisfyrepparttar 116241 international demand for wine. However, most of this production was exported and it did not have a major impact onrepparttar 116242 history of wine consumption in America.

Byrepparttar 116243 mid-1880s, European wine production rebounded, causing a glut of American wine. To make matters worse, Pierce's Disease and Phylloxera simultaneously struck Southern California's vineyards. Rising population and real estate values inrepparttar 116244 Los Angeles Basin wasrepparttar 116245 last nail inrepparttar 116246 coffin of extensive viticulture inrepparttar 116247 region. With Prohibitionist attitudes constantly gaining momentum, American demand for wine was insufficient to make up forrepparttar 116248 loss ofrepparttar 116249 much larger European market.

History of Wine Duringrepparttar 116250 Prohibition Years

In response torepparttar 116251 massive outcry of many Americans against alcohol consumption, Congress passedrepparttar 116252 18th Amendment in 1917. It bannedrepparttar 116253 commercial production and sale of alcohol in America. The Volstead Act was ratified in 1920 and expounded onrepparttar 116254 actual implementation of Prohibition. It also mandated several loopholes in alcohol production and consumption. Physicians could prescribe alcohol and it could be consumed for religious purposes. Additionally, a head of household was legally allowed to produce 200 gallons of wine a year for personal use. This was largely a concession torepparttar 116255 significant Italian-American electorate.

Because ofrepparttar 116256 Volstead Act, American wine consumption actually increased during Prohibition. The traditional American alcoholic beverages of beer and distilled spirits were illegal to produce and sell from 1920-1933. As a result, regions like Lodi saw a massive increase in demand for grapes used for home winemaking.

Prohibition did not curtailrepparttar 116257 American apetite for alcohol, it merely destroyedrepparttar 116258 legal framework that governed alcohol sales. Due torepparttar 116259 inaccessibility of alcohol,repparttar 116260 use of other drugs, including cocaine and marijauna greatly increased. Additionally,repparttar 116261 government lost a major source of revenue from taxing alcohol as organize crime took overrepparttar 116262 means of production and distribution. The American public became increasingly dissolutioned withrepparttar 116263 government's stubborn attempt to attainrepparttar 116264 impossible.

The 21st Amendment: Repeal of Prohibition

After a decade ofrepparttar 116265 "noble experiment", Congress passedrepparttar 116266 21st Amendment. It ended national Prohibition and transferredrepparttar 116267 authority to allow or ban production and sale of alcohol to individual states. Many states relegated this authority torepparttar 116268 county level. Counties in some states prohibit alcohol to this day. The history of wine production and sales sincerepparttar 116269 repeal of Prohibition has been governed byrepparttar 116270 21st Amendment, notrepparttar 116271 free trade mandates ofrepparttar 116272 U.S. Constitution.

Stress-Free Scrapbook Journaling Ideas

Written by Elaine Clay

Do you find it intimidating when you come to journal your scrapbook pages?

You are not alone! Many scrapbookers find it hard to get started when it comes to adding journaling to their scrapbooking layouts.

If you are one of those people who go blank atrepparttar thought of having to journal, donít worry. Here are some stress-free scrapbooking journaling ideas to help you writerepparttar 116219 right words whatever your page theme.

Make a list. This is a fairly simple journaling technique that is suitable for use with any type of page theme, for example:

Doing a friendship page - list how you met, where you met, how long you have known each other, include what you like about your friend and why you are both pals.

Doing a recipe scrapbook page - then make a personal top 10 list of reasons why you like Grandmaís chocolate cake so much.

Doing a baby layout - do a list of babyís favorite foods, you can even do one forrepparttar 116220 foods they donít like!

A variation of this technique is to use bullet points to mark each line on your list, giving you an opportunity to empathise each item of your journaling:

- Anguilla

- April 2004

- My first trip torepparttar 116221 Caribbean

- This isrepparttar 116222 view from my hotel balcony overlookingrepparttar 116223 cove Ė I canít wait to go swimmingrepparttar 116224 sea looks so nice!

Make sure you have fun experimenting with allrepparttar 116225 different kinds of embellishments that you can use as your bullet points!

Another bonus with usingrepparttar 116226 list technique is that you do not need to worry aboutrepparttar 116227 structure of your sentences or that your journaling makes sense becauserepparttar 116228 list breaks down what you want to say into itís basic readable form.

Write a Letter. This is one of those great scrapbook journaling ideas thatís fairly simple to do and itís also a lovely, personal way to journal your layouts too.

All you have to do is pretend youíre writing to a friend telling them what is happening in your photographs and includingrepparttar 116229 ďDear Ö.Ē atrepparttar 116230 beginning of your writing will give your journaling an intimate feel.

Cont'd on page 2 ==> © 2005
Terms of Use