Ten Tips Before You Travel

Written by Smooth Hound

1. Read up about your destination. You can do this from a guide book or usingrepparttar internet. It's worth reading up aboutrepparttar 143899 place you are due to stay, even if you're going there on business. You can find out about leisure activities while you're there, a list of 'must do' or 'must see' items. If you are travelling outside America or Europe, it is also worth checking out any local customs so that you make sure you don't accidentally offend anyone in your destination country.

2. If you are travelling abroad, check whether or notrepparttar 143900 country you are visiting needs you to get a travel visa before you can enterrepparttar 143901 country.

3. Take two photocopies ofrepparttar 143902 page of your passport that has your photo and other personal details. Leave one copy with a trusted person at home and carryrepparttar 143903 other one separately from your passport so that if you lose your passport you can quickly getrepparttar 143904 necessary information.

4. Keep details of all your credit and debit cards together with their contact phone numbers (if you are going abroad, make sure that you can actually dialrepparttar 143905 number from abroad as some phone numbers only work in your home country).

5. If at all possible, take more than one credit card on your trip. Credit card companies are getting increasingly worried about fraud and if they see an unusual pattern of purchases on your card they may 'stop' it just to be onrepparttar 143906 safe side. If you expect to be making an unusual pattern of purchases it may be worth calling your credit card company so that they are aware ofrepparttar 143907 situation.

GOLDEN RING of Russia- Travel Guide, Part 1

Written by TravelMake.com

WHAT IS IT: The so called "Golden Ring of Russia" is a symbolical ring connecting historical towns and cities torepparttar North-West of Moscow. They represent 1,000 years of rich Russian history written in stone and wood, from a 850-year old church in Rostov to a 19th-century log house inrepparttar 143856 Suzdal's open air museum. Each ofrepparttar 143857 "golden" towns once played an important role inrepparttar 143858 history of Russia and was conected in one way or another with famous historical figures such as Alexander Nevsky, Ivanrepparttar 143859 Terrible, Peterrepparttar 143860 Great and many others. If you would like to see true, patriarchal Russia, to experiencerepparttar 143861 grandeur of nature andrepparttar 143862 magnificence of ancient towns then a Golden Ring tour is well worth taking. It is one ofrepparttar 143863 most popular routes among Russian and foreign lovers of old Russian history and architecture.

WHAT TO SEE: The cities and towns ofrepparttar 143864 Golden Ring are listed here in alphabetical order:

Aleksandrov (founded in 1530, population 68,000) - The town is situated 100 km from Moscow onrepparttar 143865 crossway of ancient roads fromrepparttar 143866 largest historic centers of Russia - Vladimir and Suzdal, Rostov and Yaroslavl, Sergiev Posad and Pereyaslavl-Zalessky. In 1564- 1581repparttar 143867 town wasrepparttar 143868 residence of Ivanrepparttar 143869 Terrible. In Aleksandrovrepparttar 143870 tsar proclaimedrepparttar 143871 establishment of his select, terror-inspiring corps,repparttar 143872 Oprichniki and signedrepparttar 143873 harsh conditions ofrepparttar 143874 truce with Poland and Sweden after losingrepparttar 143875 long war with Livonia. From Aleksandrov Ivanrepparttar 143876 Terrible led his army of Oprichniki to strike atrepparttar 143877 big trade centres of Novgorod, Pskov, Klin and Tver. Hererepparttar 143878 cruel tsar killed his son in a rage and soon after that left Aleksandrov forever coming back to Moscow. The very first in Russia publishing house was established in Aleksandrov in 1576. One ofrepparttar 143879 leading textile manufacturing centres in Russia inrepparttar 143880 19th century.

Bogolubovo (founded in 990, population 4,000) - a tiny quiet town nearrepparttar 143881 city of Vladimir. The town was named afterrepparttar 143882 Russian prince Andrey Bogolubsky (God-loving) who builtrepparttar 143883 first fortified settlement here in 1165. It was a strategically important point overlookingrepparttar 143884 Kliazma River. Tourists can see remains ofrepparttar 143885 Andery Bogolubsky's residence including some residential chambers ofrepparttar 143886 12th century andrepparttar 143887 beautiful Church ofrepparttar 143888 Intercession ofrepparttar 143889 Virgin onrepparttar 143890 Nerl (1165) which is considered to be one ofrepparttar 143891 finest specimens of old Russian architecture.

Gorohovets (founded in 1239, population 30,000) - The town was founded under Vladimir prince Andrey Bogolubsky. The town is picturesquely settled onrepparttar 143892 high bank ofrepparttar 143893 Klyazma River. Played role as a fortified forepost until 1600-s. Reached its developmental pick inrepparttar 143894 17-th century as a local centre for blacksmithing, textile-making and making of leather and also as an agricultural trade centre for grains and flax.

Gus-Khrustalny (founded in 1756, population 80,000) - Over 200 years ago a merchant built hererepparttar 143895 first workshop of glass casting. Todayrepparttar 143896 town is one ofrepparttar 143897 district centers of Vladimir region, well-known in Russia and abroad asrepparttar 143898 national center of glassmaking. The name Gus-Krustalny can be literally translated as Chrystalline Goose. The old part ofrepparttar 143899 town is a workmen's settlement of 1900-s. with its own Church of St. Joachim of 1816.

Kholuy (founded 1650, population 1,000) - The village of Kholui did not begin producing lacquered miniatures untilrepparttar 143900 1930s, and though iconography had been an important trade inrepparttar 143901 region in previous centuries, Kholui was never bound to any particular artistic tradition. Rather, Kholui miniatures share some traits with both Palekh and Mstera art, yet maintain a distinctive lyrical quality of their own. As in Palekh and Mstera, Kholui artists use egg tempera paints. Kholui paintings tend to be brighter than Mstera's, though like Mstera,repparttar 143902 pigments used are opaque andrepparttar 143903 background is usually fully painted. Sometimes, as with Palekh miniatures, Kholui miniatures will include some fine gold and/or silver ornamentation withinrepparttar 143904 painting, and Kholui artists can create fantastic border ornaments on par with those of Palekh. Since 1960-s products of Kholuy's 200 artists have been widely represented and promoted internationally.

Kostroma (founded in 1213, population 300,000) - Inrepparttar 143905 past Kostroma was known as "the flax capital ofrepparttar 143906 north"; it supplied Europe withrepparttar 143907 world's finest sail-cloth. The city has been also called asrepparttar 143908 "cradle ofrepparttar 143909 Romanov dynasty". Mikhail Romanov,repparttar 143910 first ofrepparttar 143911 Romanov dynasty, leftrepparttar 143912 Ipatievsky Monastery for Moscow in 1613 to become tsar of Russia. Duringrepparttar 143913 Polish intervention inrepparttar 143914 turbulent years ofrepparttar 143915 early seventeenth century Kostroma was a significant stronghold forrepparttar 143916 resistance movement. The city is spreaded onrepparttar 143917 left bank ofrepparttar 143918 Volga river. Nowadays Kostroma is an important industrial center (textile, metal works), a capital city ofrepparttar 143919 Kostroma province.

Mstera (founded in 1628, population 6,000) -repparttar 143920 town takes its name fromrepparttar 143921 little Msterka River, which flows through it merging withrepparttar 143922 Kliyazma. It is in Vladimir Region, but not far fromrepparttar 143923 border with Ivanovo Region, south of Palekh and Kholui, in breathtakingly beautiful countryside -repparttar 143924 one that formsrepparttar 143925 backdrop to its paintings. Mstera was a respected center of icon production untilrepparttar 143926 trade was banned afterrepparttar 143927 Revolution of 1917. Since then its artists has been creating world-famous masterpieces inrepparttar 143928 form of lacquered miniatures. In keeping withrepparttar 143929 traditions of iconography, egg tempera paints are still used. The landscape is of central importance torepparttar 143930 painting with people and objects integrated torepparttar 143931 setting. Mstera paintings are frequently larger than those fromrepparttar 143932 other schools but some fine miniatures are also produced and because of their rarity are highly prized. Typical themes include exquisite floral designs with lacy gold ornamentation,repparttar 143933 traditional fairy tales, traditional activities and events such as a winter festival, and sometimes portraiture.

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