Social Program: Management & Evaluation

Written by Timothy Farrell, PhD


Timothy Farrell, PHD faroglobal, inc. Guatemala City, Guatemala

October 2001 Introduction NGO Program- and Project Accountability are acknowledged as being necessary – but often as an unavoidable burden – to NGO operations. Usually “accountability” is thought of as an upward response to oversight as with to Donors or Boards of Directors, and most frequently is thought of in financial terms as inrepparttar case of audits, unit costs, or numbers of people benefiting from a project or activity. Local and national governments also occasionally request such summary information where NGOs operate.

These summary reports are valuable and useful torepparttar 132681 intended audience for a variety of accounting, sponsorship and public relations purposes and are intended to support corporate sustainability. Indeed, without a “record of accomplishment”, it is often difficult for an NGO to enter a new country or new region where local control and autonomy is high. Figure 1 provides a generalized view ofrepparttar 132682 primary distribution of summary reports.

Figure 1Generalized “Standard” Accountability Report Distribution

Well-informed and perceptive program managers, onrepparttar 132683 other hand, are aware thatrepparttar 132684 concept of accountability is far broader, more inclusive and more useful than upward or even lateral reporting. They acknowledge that for program purposes, accountability translates easily into evaluation, planning, program participation and sustainability. Accountability and Stakeholders The dictionary defines “accountable or accountability” in two ways:

1. Responsible: responsible to somebody else or to others, or responsible for something 2. Able to be explained: capable of being explained (formal)

Compare this withrepparttar 132685 definition of “accounting”:

Accounting: bookkeeping:repparttar 132686 activity, practice, or profession of maintaining and checkingrepparttar 132687 business records of an individual or organization and preparing forms and reports for tax or other financial purposes

These are clearly two very different words and have vastly different meanings. Accountability can certainly include accounting, but it is noteworthy that accounting deals with finances, while “accountability” simply refers to responsibility “to somebody else or to others” for “something”, and that it be capable of being explained.

These differences should affect how we perceive and behave with respect torepparttar 132688 concept of accountability:

·To whom are we responsible? ·For what are we responsible?

Stakeholders, classically defined by M. Q. Patton (1986:43), are:

“…people who have a stake – a vested interest – in evaluation findings. For any evaluating there are multiple stakeholders: program funders, staff, administrators, clients, and others with a direct or even indirect, interest in program effectiveness.”

This is a broad and general definition is somehow unsatisfactory for evaluation purposes because except for one reference to “clients”, this is upward looking. If you compare it to Figure 1 onrepparttar 132689 previous page, you will see that these “stakeholders” are all represented inrepparttar 132690 “traffic circle or roundabout” as separate “roads” radiating fromrepparttar 132691 “hub” or Program Manager.

The “client” remains undefined in Patton’s definition and unrepresented in Figure 1. Who, then, isrepparttar 132692 client and what roads of information pathways are available to him?

Fortunately, Patton goes on to make a very important point about stakeholders:

Stakeholders are decision makers and information users who have questions about a program.

By any definition,repparttar 132693 people who we serve are decision makers and information users, and this applies to evenrepparttar 132694 most “passive beneficiaries” , say, those who simply receive direct donations such as food or medical assistance. .

Regardless of whether or not we are talking about “clients” or “beneficiaries” and sustainable vs. unsustainable program and project activities, we do need to talk about “responsibility and accountability with respect torepparttar 132695 people who we serve.

Mobbing Is Emotional Abuse

Written by Gail Pursell Elliott

Are you a mobber? Have you ever made fun of people behind their backs? Spread rumors? Played practical jokes that weren’t really funny and got others to join in your laughter? Have you joined in some of this behavior thinking you were right or justified, or perhaps because you didn’t want to be excluded fromrepparttar group? If you ever have done this, don’t beat yourself up over it. Just be awarerepparttar 132679 next time you are tempted to treat another person in this way that this is bullying and mobbing is group bullying.

It is a ‘ganging up’ on someone usingrepparttar 132680 tactics of rumor, innuendo, discrediting, isolating, intimidating, and above all, making it look as ifrepparttar 132681 targeted person is responsible. As is typical of many abusive situations,repparttar 132682 perpetrators maintain thatrepparttar 132683 victim ‘deserved it.’

Mobbing is emotional abuse that results in depression, isolation, paranoia, physical and/or emotional illness, sometimes suicide, sometimes overt acts of retaliation and aggression. Atrepparttar 132684 very least, it leaves permanent scars. Many targets suffer from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There is always injury.

Mobbing has no age preference, no gender preference, no race preference, and no work preference. It can happen to anyone. It can happen to you, someone you care about, orrepparttar 132685 person sitting next to you in any environment. It may have already happened to you or to someone you know and you didn’t understand what it was. When a mobbing is in progress it can be one ofrepparttar 132686 most confusing situations in which you will find yourself. It is so subtle that you begin to wonder if perhaps your abusers are right and that you aren’trepparttar 132687 person you always thought you were. It shatters self-esteem. How many of us saw bullies picking on kids inrepparttar 132688 school yard while we were growing up? Everyone saw that! Sincerepparttar 132689 shooting in San Diego, after whichrepparttar 132690 perpetrator stated that he had been bullied, a huge public awareness campaign was launched. Many articles recently have been written onrepparttar 132691 subject.

Mobbing has been a household word in German-speaking countries for many years. The original research on workplace mobbing was done in Sweden, beginning inrepparttar 132692 early 1980’s, by industrial psychologist Dr. Heinz Leymann.

Two years ago, my co-authors and I published a book called Mobbing: Emotional Abuse inrepparttar 132693 American Workplace. Afterrepparttar 132694 Columbine High School incident, I developed dignity and respect communication workshops for teens and created mobbing awareness posters for schools and businesses.

The response to these efforts has been minimal. Unfortunately, people usually don’t become interested in an issue until it personally affects them or threatens their immediate interests in some way. For example, we may not worry about pollution until our own drinking water is fouled. In this case, someone had to die and a finger directly pointed at this type of behavior before anyone would pay real attention to this issue, though all of us have been aware of this type of problem for years.

The response to potential violence is more reactive than proactive. Instead of creating awareness and promoting dignity and respect for all people, security systems and surveillance cameras are installed. Stiffer gun control laws are suggested. The plain truth is that many people are walking around with a deep anger inside of them and don’t know why. I believe that one ofrepparttar 132695 reasons is because so many have been treated like objects rather than as unique human beings for too long. When I share this observation during a presentation, virtually everyone inrepparttar 132696 room expresses agreement.

Cont'd on page 2 ==> © 2005
Terms of Use