Should You Hire a Vioxx Lawyer?

Written by Michael Monheit, Esquire

If you or a beloved family member has suffered a Vioxx related heart attack, other cardiovascular problems, or a Vioxx induced stroke then you may be eligible to be part of a Vioxx class action suit or individual Vioxx litigation case.

The grounds for filing a Vioxx stroke, heart attack, or sudden death litigation case are based on releasing and marketing Vioxx as a safe alternative for chronic pain. Vioxx and other NSAID (non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs) were not tested long-term to determine its patient safety factor. A few years passed beforerepparttar FDA advised Merck to properly post warnings onrepparttar 119264 label. During that time-frame, thousands of doctors prescribed Vioxx to thousands of patients impervious torepparttar 119265 imminent health threat that lay ahead.

How much does a Vioxx lawsuit cost? --------- Most Vioxx law firms will accept clients on a contingency fee basis. There is no fee, unless and until there is a recovery. If nothing is recovered during your Vioxx lawsuit thenrepparttar 119266 client pays nothing. The contingent fee is based on a pre-agreed percentage ofrepparttar 119267 recovery depending onrepparttar 119268 complexity and risks involved in your Vioxx case.

What’srepparttar 119269 difference between a Vioxx class action suit, individual litigation, and MDL (multi district litigation)? --------- In a Vioxx class action suit, individuals who have similar cases would be "joined together" in a "class" to prosecute their claims in a "more efficient" manner. This process begins when one person (or more) agrees to serve asrepparttar 119270 class representative. This "class rep" is then subject to approval byrepparttar 119271 court. There are a series of requirements thatrepparttar 119272 court reviews -- but most significantly, whetherrepparttar 119273 claims ofrepparttar 119274 "class rep" are typical ofrepparttar 119275 claims of other members ofrepparttar 119276 proposed class. The class representative is proceeding not only on his or her own behalf, but also on behalf of all others who are similarly situated. In this case, there is only ONE lawsuit,repparttar 119277 result of which binds all class members. In order to determine ifrepparttar 119278 class will receive fair and adequate representation,repparttar 119279 court will generally consider whetherrepparttar 119280 attorney forrepparttar 119281 class has experience in handling class actions and/or claims similar to those ofrepparttar 119282 proposed class. In addition,repparttar 119283 court will determine whether there are any conflicts inrepparttar 119284 interests ofrepparttar 119285 class members.

In individual Vioxx litigation, each person's lawyer prosecutes their case, apart from any other cases. If a lawyer has multiple clients, each client would receive individual attention and would have their own Vioxx lawsuit.

Even with individual Vioxx litigation, some cases end up in Federal court, due to a diversity of citizenship betweenrepparttar 119286 claimant and Merck. In these cases,repparttar 119287 individual claim gets temporarily consolidated with other cases in Federal court. But this consolidation is ONLY forrepparttar 119288 purposes of discovery, and does not impactrepparttar 119289 right to an individual trial for that person's Vioxx lawsuit. The MDL gives each personrepparttar 119290 benefit through judicial economy and efficiencies of scale. For example, if Merck is also being sued by 10,000 other Vioxx plaintiffs acrossrepparttar 119291 country, just taking depositions in allrepparttar 119292 various jurisdictions could delayrepparttar 119293 trial date by years. But when all those individual Vioxx lawsuits are consolidated for discovery, it helps to save time and money forrepparttar 119294 Vioxx clients. In addition, it placesrepparttar 119295 Vioxx plaintiffs on a more level playing field.

Cabotage And International Operation Of Corporate Aircraft

Written by Greg Reigel

Cabotage and International Operation of Corporate Aircraft

© 2004 Reigel & Associates, Ltd./Aero Legal Services. All rights reserved.

Most countries have laws regulatingrepparttar airspace over their lands. Each time an aircraft enters a foreign country’s airspace,repparttar 119263 aircraft operator must comply with that country’s regulations affecting flight operations andrepparttar 119264 carriage of passengers. Particularly with respect to passengers,repparttar 119265 majority of countries have rigid limitations on who may be carried within their borders and how.

Specifically,repparttar 119266 rules and regulations relating to carriage of passengers and goods withinrepparttar 119267 same foreign country are referred to as “cabotage”. Cabotage regulations are not uniform or necessarily consistent from one country to another. They usually apply to both commercial and private operators. However, as we will discuss shortly, whether a foreign country considers a corporate aircraft operator to be a commercial or private operator will also vary by country.

Regardless of which countryrepparttar 119268 corporate aircraft operates within,repparttar 119269 pilot in command of a corporate aircraft is responsible for knowing and complying with that country’s cabotage restrictions. Failure to comply can, and has, resulted in six-digit fines and penalties imposed againstrepparttar 119270 corporate aircraft operator, and corporate aircraft have been impounded by foreign governments until such violations have been resolved torepparttar 119271 satisfaction ofrepparttar 119272 governing authority.

Examples Of Cabotage Regulations Applicable To Corporate Aircraft Operators

United States. The United States does not currently have any regulations that prevent private (not for compensation or hire) foreign corporate aircraft from carrying U.S. passengers between points withinrepparttar 119273 U.S. 14 CFR 375.30 provides that “civil aircraft which are not engaged in commercial air operations into, out of, or withinrepparttar 119274 United States may be operated inrepparttar 119275 United Sates and may discharge, take on, or carry between points inrepparttar 119276 United States any nonrevenue traffic.”

Canada. After clearing customs, Canada allows a corporate aircraft operator to engage in unlimited operations within Canada as long asrepparttar 119277 U.S. registered aircraft is carrying U.S.-boarded passengers andrepparttar 119278 aircraft is not operating for “hire or reward”. Canada also allows unlimited international operations where passengers are being transported acrossrepparttar 119279 border between Canada and any other country. This includes stops within Canada to pick up or drop off passengers who are traveling internationally.

Canadian-boarded passengers may be transported within Canada by a U.S. registered aircraft provided thatrepparttar 119280 transportation is incidental torepparttar 119281 intended purpose ofrepparttar 119282 flight. That is, a corporate aircraft operator could fly its U.S. registered corporate aircraft into Canada, pick up Canadian personnel, customers, etc. and fly on to another destination in Canada for a meeting or event. As a long asrepparttar 119283 sole purpose of flight was not transportingrepparttar 119284 Canadian passengers, thenrepparttar 119285 carriage ofrepparttar 119286 Canadian passengers would be considered incidental and should not violaterepparttar 119287 cabotage regulations.

European Union. Cabotage regulations inrepparttar 119288 European Union are more complex than in Canada. The difficulty results fromrepparttar 119289 European Union’s definition of commercial transportation. Inrepparttar 119290 U.S.,repparttar 119291 U.S. Customs service defines commercial transportation as transportation “for compensation or hire”. However,repparttar 119292 European Union defines “commercial use” as “the use of means of transportation forrepparttar 119293 transport of persons or of goods for remuneration or inrepparttar 119294 framework ofrepparttar 119295 economic activity of an enterprise”.

Unfortunately,repparttar 119296 European Union definition means that a U.S. registered corporate aircraft operating withinrepparttar 119297 European Union for corporate or other business purposes can be considered to be engaging in commercial use or transportation. As a result, if a corporate aircraft flies into a European Union country, picks up a citizen of that country and then travels on to another destination within that country, it is likely thatrepparttar 119298 second flight would be in violation ofrepparttar 119299 European Union cabotage regulations.

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