Shedding Light on Cheaper Solar Energy

Written by Brenda Townsend Hall

Renewable sources of energy arerepparttar key to solving two ofrepparttar 110127 worlds most pressing yet seemingly irreconcilable problems. Onrepparttar 110128 one handrepparttar 110129 developing world needs vastly to increase access to affordable energy because, at present, 1.6 billion people inrepparttar 110130 world's poorest countries do not have a power supply. However, onrepparttar 110131 other, we cannot go on depletingrepparttar 110132 world's finite resources of fossil fuels and contributing torepparttar 110133 emission of harmful greenhouse gases by burning them. Thus sustainable development is threatened by a 'double whammy':repparttar 110134 difficulty of meeting increasing demands for energy, without which development aims cannot be met, andrepparttar 110135 by environmentally harmful systems most often used to provide it.

Affordable, renewable energy sources would contribute greatly to breaking this impasse. However,repparttar 110136 field is a complex one and nobody believes a single solution will be found that can answer allrepparttar 110137 world's energy needs. Even renewable sources have their drawbacks - wind and solar systems, for example, may never be able to stand alone as energy providers because they are, by their very nature, intermittent. However, they can be used very effectively in conjunction with other systems. A judicious mix of energy-producing systems can contribute to sustainable development by increasingrepparttar 110138 availability of energy torepparttar 110139 poor, while reducing harmful impacts onrepparttar 110140 environment. But an intransigent limiting factor isrepparttar 110141 cost, particularly ofrepparttar 110142 conversion of sunlight for energy. If systems are not affordable they will be beyondrepparttar 110143 reach ofrepparttar 110144 poorer countries whose needs are most pressing.

Recently, however, a project undertaken by a team of physicists, chemists, material scientists and engineers at Sheffield Hallam University, with funding fromrepparttar 110145 Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), has given a new boost torepparttar 110146 economic feasibility of solar energy. The research has shown how to reducerepparttar 110147 cost of generating solar electricity. Although electricity generation throughrepparttar 110148 interaction ofrepparttar 110149 sun's heat and light with semiconductors (called photovoltaics [PV]) has recognised environmental benefits,repparttar 110150 technology has hitherto been hampered byrepparttar 110151 relatively high costs involved.

Nowrepparttar 110152 Sheffield Hallam University team has come up with some cost-cutting ideas: a low-cost semiconductor production method called electrodeposition, less reliance on expensive semiconductor materials, andrepparttar 110153 identification of alternative solar cell devices and manufacturing techniques with higher conversion efficiencies. Such efficiencies mean that more power can be produced per cell so thatrepparttar 110154 cost of each unit of electricity generated is reduced.

Evolution of matter

Written by Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova

2003 Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova

Translated from Russian. We shall be glad to receive your remarks on stylistics, grammar, and content.

Chapter I. Evolution of lifeless matter

We more likely fortunately than unfortunately are inrepparttar world where there is a time-space and a matter where a duality, variety and constant changes exist. But how to manage to describe World or its any phenomenon if you being in it? The most interesting phenomenon known to a science isrepparttar 110126 Great explosion, a birth ofrepparttar 110127 universe which was about 15-20 billion years ago. What had becomerepparttar 110128 reason of it? The condition ofrepparttar 110129 universe beforerepparttar 110130 birth cannot be transferred by words means. It is follows ofrepparttar 110131 known ancient texts concerning creation and essence of our world (the Bible, Vedic and Dao). This condition is described as containing All and Nothing simultaneously. Ancient texts force us to disconnect thinking logic and to trust in supersensual perception. But a problem, we have no supersensual perception. So we shall try to create model of development of a matter withrepparttar 110132 help ofrepparttar 110133 empirical data, existing theories and logic, but we shall take position of ancient doctrines asrepparttar 110134 entry condition: "All in Nothing, Nothing in All". Is lawful to conclude on it basis thatrepparttar 110135 explosion reason was occurrence ofrepparttar 110136 Unity (point). Occurrence ofrepparttar 110137 Unity createdrepparttar 110138 occurrence ofrepparttar 110139 Variety potential (infinity). Unity and Variety asrepparttar 110140 total difference has made explosion. The aspiration from Unity to Variety has automatically given birth to opposite aspiration from Variety to Unity. These two aspirations have created a matter, space-time, all processes andrepparttar 110141 phenomena around of us and inside us. Difference of Unity and Variety, a point and infinity has given birth to space-time. Internal aspiration of superelementary particles to Unity and an external pulse to Variety have forced its to space overcoming and to participating in irreversible processes of uniting and disconnecting , that has given birth to time-line (an one-orientation fromrepparttar 110142 past torepparttar 110143 future) and a matter. Afterrepparttar 110144 era of Great explosion which last very short time interval was finished an era of Great association was begun with duration no more than t=10 in degree -35s. During this period there was a first phase transition of a matter (phase transition is a change of a condition of a matter, for example, transformation of water into steam). Superelementary particles and superelementary antiparticles have appeared in this era. Here there was a global copying of Unity and Variety on internal elements of system as difference between of superelementary particles and superelementary antiparticles and occurrence of gravitation. There were first interactions and first particles focused on interactions (gluons). The following period is marked byrepparttar 110145 next phase transition of matter. It isrepparttar 110146 period of androns formation (protons, neutrons, electrons, etc.). Nuclear forces arerepparttar 110147 basic interaction at this stage which were allocated from gravitation and have found a duality, ability to draw or push away. There were first microsystems where interactions between a few quarks form large variety of elementary particles. It is a first level of complexity known to a science. The aspiration to association atrepparttar 110148 bottom level is appeared in variety atrepparttar 110149 top level. All evolution of a matter proceeded by this principle.

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