Rosetta stone

Written by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga

The Rosetta stone is very famous for it providedrepparttar key to solverepparttar 109447 ancient Egyptian language. The Rosetta Stone was carved in 196 B.C. It was discovered byrepparttar 109448 French soldiers who came with Napoleon. The Frenchman Jean François Champollion isrepparttar 109449 one who crackedrepparttar 109450 code ofrepparttar 109451 stone.

The discovery ofrepparttar 109452 stone of rosette later called Rosetta stone is an interesting story. The stone was discovered byrepparttar 109453 French troops in Napoleon's military expedition, in 1799 in Lower Egypt, when they were diggingrepparttar 109454 foundations of an addition to a fort nearrepparttar 109455 town of el-Rashid (Rosetta), inrepparttar 109456 Nile Delta. It was discovered nearrepparttar 109457 town of Rosetta (now Rashid), located inrepparttar 109458 Nile Delta about 40 miles northeast of Alexandria, by a Frenchman, Pierre Bouchard, on 15 July 1799. Captain Bouchard, an engineer officer in Napoleon's expedition to Egypt, was supervisingrepparttar 109459 reconstruction of an old fort, as part ofrepparttar 109460 preparations for defendingrepparttar 109461 French from attacks by British and Turkish forces inrepparttar 109462 area. The Rosetta Stone came to light duringrepparttar 109463 demolition of a wall inrepparttar 109464 fort. Captain Bouchard saw thatrepparttar 109465 polished black basalt stone contained three sections of different types of writing, and recognized its significance immediately. He sentrepparttar 109466 stone to Cairo, torepparttar 109467 scholars who also accompaniedrepparttar 109468 French expedition to Egypt. In 1801, after two years of warding off attacks byrepparttar 109469 British, and after their defeat at Abuquir Bay,repparttar 109470 French forces in Egypt surrendered. Underrepparttar 109471 terms ofrepparttar 109472 Treaty of Capitulation, all antiquities inrepparttar 109473 possession ofrepparttar 109474 French, includingrepparttar 109475 Rosetta Stone, were ceded torepparttar 109476 British.

The stone is a compact basalt slab (114x72x28 cm) that was found in July 1799 inrepparttar 109477 small Egyptian village Rosette (Raschid), which is located inrepparttar 109478 western delta ofrepparttar 109479 Nile. The stone contained words in three types of writing: Egyptian hieroglyphs, Demotic, which is a shorthand version of Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, and Greek. By translatingrepparttar 109480 Greek section, scholars were able to learn whatrepparttar 109481 hieroglyphs meant. This enabled them to translate inscriptions insiderepparttar 109482 Egyptian temples.

The inscription onrepparttar 109483 stone was a decree passed by a general council of priests which assembled at Memphis onrepparttar 109484 first anniversary ofrepparttar 109485 coronation of Ptolemy V Epiphanes, king of all Egypt. The text concernsrepparttar 109486 honours bestowed onrepparttar 109487 king by temples of Egypt in return for services rendered by him to Egypt both at home and abroad. Priestly privileges, especially those of an economic nature, are listed in detail. Becauserepparttar 109488 inscription appears in three scripts, hieroglyphic, demotic, and Greek, scholars were able to decipherrepparttar 109489 Egyptian hieroglyphic and demotic versions by comparing them withrepparttar 109490 Greek version.


Written by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga


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The ancient Egyptian writing which is called hieroglyphics were composed of pictures and drawings. The hieroglyphic alphabets is composed of drawings to symbolizerepparttar 109446 ancient Egyptian letters. The anciet Egyptians were very cultured and civilized that is why they cherished learning and cherished their history and invented this method of writing to keep their civilization recorded on walls of temples and tombs. The hieroglyphics alphabet is made up of drawings representingrepparttar 109447 sound ofrepparttar 109448 letter, thus they were all constant letters. Also ancient egyptian writing used small pictures for representing whole words, ideas or actions. HIEROGLYPHICS There is about 700 letters inrepparttar 109449 ancient egyptian writing system. The ancient Egyptians considered this type of writing as sacred and religious writings and most were placed and carved on tombs or wall of temples.The Egyptian writings were consideredrepparttar 109450 "words ofrepparttar 109451 Gods". The ibis-headed god Thoth was considered to berepparttar 109452 patron deity of writing and scribes. Hieroglyphs were primarily used for religious and formal secular purposes. Early inrepparttar 109453 historical period, a simpler cursive script was developed, in which each character was a simplified version of a hieroglyph. This script is today known as hieratic and was widely used until about 800 BCE for business, literary and religious texts. By about 700 BCE another script today called demotic had evolved fromrepparttar 109454 hieratic. Business, legal and literary inscriptions were written in demotic.

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