## Probability - Fact or Fiction

Written by Johnny Fuctup

Probability – Fact or Fiction

So what is chance that a coin will land heads when flipped? Scientists say there is a 50% chance. Is this necessarily so though?

From reading my other articles it should be clear that one theory of our universe that I’m particularly interested in is consensus reality. A universe created by our collective consciousness that fits within confines of our collective belief systems.

I often feel that science is not so much determining existing laws of universe as is commonly thought, but in some respects creating laws itself through self-reinforcement in conscious minds that continually maintain structure and behaviour of this planet.

When you toss a coin, your subconscious beliefs dictate that, if you toss it enough, it will come up tails eventually. The concept of probability, chance and chaos are so well rooted in everyone’s minds that it is impossible to convince yourself that you have power to make that coin show heads each and every time.

If you do experiment yourself, say tossing a coin 1000 times trying to will coin to be heads, and logging results as you go, you may notice after first 50 tosses that there has been a rather large bias towards coin coming up heads, for e.g

Odd? Not really, mathematicians and statisticians will tell you that if you continue tossing coin, and more data is amassed, that tosses will average out more.

That is entirely possible, and if we are to believe that physical world follows laws of probability as rigidly as they say, probable.

But... this experiment has been insurmountably tainted by preconceptions of person carrying out experiment. If that person, with 100% complete faith that that coin WOULD land heads every single time, actually had power to make that happen, there is no way they would EVER find that power out, because 100% faith is impossible with conditioning of randomness and probability concepts since day they were born. The most faith you can realistically ever have that it will land heads is... well, 50% really.

If you managed to convince yourself 100% that you had power to influence coin toss, and then tossed coin and it came up heads, what are “chances” that it will come up heads on second toss? 50% still. It’s counter intuitive, as you would assume that there is less chance of it coming up heads again if it already has done, but probability states that second time (or any other time) you toss that coin, it still has 50% chance of being heads.

Despite this, when tossing coin a second time, you would be aware that you had just got a heads, and this niggling doubt would mean that you were no longer 100% convinced that you could make coin come up heads again. You toss it again... Heads! Unbelievable...

That’s two heads in a row, maybe there’s something to this?

Time to toss again. You are still willing it to be heads, but you can feel your conviction and faith waning this time...

## Does Clean Mean Extreme Green?

Written by Bill Knell

Does Clean Mean Extreme Green?

By Bill Knell

Growing up in suburbs of New York City in 1960s was a pleasurable experience. Venturing into New York City, especially Manhattan, was not. The smell of car, truck and bus exhaust combined with a number of other foul vapors to produce a pollution mix that almost seemed toxic. If you were used to it, city air was probably something that you were able to tolerate. However, to those who spent more time out of city then in it, air was filthy and made you sick.

By late 1970s, air quality in Manhattan and other Boroughs improved substantially. There were a number of reasons for this including clean air initiatives and vehicle emission reductions. The city was also a much cleaner place. Concerns about pollution and living in a better environment caused people to clean up their neighborhoods. Dumping of materials into waterways was more tightly regulated or stopped altogether. Antiquated garbage and environmental facilities operated by New York City were updated or completely rebuilt. Anti-littering campaigns made us all think twice before throwing garbage on street.

The cleaning up of New York City was not an isolated incident. Cities and towns throughout United States became aware that a large part of their image and identity depended on how clean they were. However, this is not a new phenomenon. Whenever public health has been threatened by a lack of good environmental practices, there have been clean ups. Most large cities throughout world have made sincere efforts to clean up their streets, waterways and neighborhoods. Municipal facilities that have to do with environment have been updated.

As we began to take a closer look at environment, it became obvious that good stewardship of our planet produced positive consequences. By replanting forests that were cut down, we insured a future supply of lumber and made sure that those areas were not impacted in a negative way. When limitations were placed on fishing in various areas, future catch and survival of creatures necessary to those eco systems were guaranteed. Artificial products were combined with natural materials to produce superior textiles that were less expensive and eco friendly. The government limited use of dangerous chemical pesticides which posed a threat to everything.

Despite all positive results from a world of people who became more environmentally conscience, something went wrong. The movement to clean up earth and be good eco stewards changed. It became a screaming protest against disturbing world in any way. Things like logging, use of animals for food or clothes and drilling for oil were no longer going to be tolerated. Environmentalists wanted to put an end to human domination of planet. The old enemy was large corporations that saved their bottom line at cost of cleanliness and safety of communities where they operated factories. The new enemy is us!

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