Probability - Fact or Fiction

Written by Johnny Fuctup

Probability – Fact or Fiction

So what isrepparttar chance that a coin will land heads when flipped? Scientists say there is a 50% chance. Is this necessarily so though?

From reading my other articles it should be clear that one theory of our universe that I’m particularly interested in is consensus reality. A universe created by our collective consciousness that fits withinrepparttar 135772 confines of our collective belief systems.

I often feel that science is not so much determining existing laws ofrepparttar 135773 universe as is commonly thought, but in some respects creatingrepparttar 135774 laws itself through self-reinforcement inrepparttar 135775 conscious minds that continually maintainrepparttar 135776 structure and behaviour of this planet.

When you toss a coin, your subconscious beliefs dictate that, if you toss it enough, it will come up tails eventually. The concept of probability, chance and chaos are so well rooted in everyone’s minds that it is impossible to convince yourself that you haverepparttar 135777 power to make that coin show heads each and every time.

If you dorepparttar 135778 experiment yourself, say tossing a coin 1000 times trying to willrepparttar 135779 coin to be heads, and loggingrepparttar 135780 results as you go, you may notice afterrepparttar 135781 first 50 tosses that there has been a rather large bias towardsrepparttar 135782 coin coming up heads, for e.g

Heads Tails 31 19

Odd? Not really, mathematicians and statisticians will tell you that if you continue tossingrepparttar 135783 coin, and more data is amassed, thatrepparttar 135784 tosses will average out more.

That is entirely possible, and if we are to believe thatrepparttar 135785 physical world followsrepparttar 135786 laws of probability as rigidly as they say, probable.

But... this experiment has been insurmountably tainted byrepparttar 135787 preconceptions ofrepparttar 135788 person carrying outrepparttar 135789 experiment. If that person, with 100% complete faith that that coin WOULD land heads every single time, actually hadrepparttar 135790 power to make that happen, there is no way they would EVER find that power out, because 100% faith is impossible withrepparttar 135791 conditioning of randomness and probability concepts sincerepparttar 135792 day they were born. The most faith you can realistically ever have that it will land heads is... well, 50% really.

If you managed to convince yourself 100% that you hadrepparttar 135793 power to influencerepparttar 135794 coin toss, and then tossedrepparttar 135795 coin and it came up heads, what arerepparttar 135796 “chances” that it will come up heads onrepparttar 135797 second toss? 50% still. It’s counter intuitive, as you would assume that there is less chance of it coming up heads again if it already has done, but probability states thatrepparttar 135798 second time (or any other time) you toss that coin, it still has 50% chance of being heads.

Despite this, when tossingrepparttar 135799 coin a second time, you would be aware that you had just got a heads, and this niggling doubt would mean that you were no longer 100% convinced that you could makerepparttar 135800 coin come up heads again. You toss it again... Heads! Unbelievable...

That’s two heads in a row, maybe there’s something to this?

Time to toss again. You are still willing it to be heads, but you can feel your conviction and faith waning this time...

Does Clean Mean Extreme Green?

Written by Bill Knell

Does Clean Mean Extreme Green?

By Bill Knell

Growing up inrepparttar suburbs of New York City inrepparttar 134920 1960s was a pleasurable experience. Venturing into New York City, especially Manhattan, was not. The smell of car, truck and bus exhaust combined with a number of other foul vapors to produce a pollution mix that almost seemed toxic. If you were used to it,repparttar 134921 city air was probably something that you were able to tolerate. However, to those who spent more time out ofrepparttar 134922 city then in it,repparttar 134923 air was filthy and made you sick.

Byrepparttar 134924 late 1970s,repparttar 134925 air quality in Manhattan andrepparttar 134926 other Boroughs improved substantially. There were a number of reasons for this including clean air initiatives and vehicle emission reductions. The city was also a much cleaner place. Concerns about pollution and living in a better environment caused people to clean up their neighborhoods. Dumping of materials into waterways was more tightly regulated or stopped altogether. Antiquated garbage and environmental facilities operated by New York City were updated or completely rebuilt. Anti-littering campaigns made us all think twice before throwing garbage onrepparttar 134927 street.

The cleaning up of New York City was not an isolated incident. Cities and towns throughoutrepparttar 134928 United States became aware that a large part of their image and identity depended on how clean they were. However, this is not a new phenomenon. Whenever public health has been threatened by a lack of good environmental practices, there have been clean ups. Most large cities throughoutrepparttar 134929 world have made sincere efforts to clean up their streets, waterways and neighborhoods. Municipal facilities that have to do withrepparttar 134930 environment have been updated.

As we began to take a closer look atrepparttar 134931 environment, it became obvious that good stewardship of our planet produced positive consequences. By replanting forests that were cut down, we insured a future supply of lumber and made sure that those areas were not impacted in a negative way. When limitations were placed on fishing in various areas,repparttar 134932 future catch and survival of creatures necessary to those eco systems were guaranteed. Artificial products were combined with natural materials to produce superior textiles that were less expensive and eco friendly. The government limitedrepparttar 134933 use of dangerous chemical pesticides which posed a threat to everything.

Despite allrepparttar 134934 positive results from a world of people who became more environmentally conscience, something went wrong. The movement to clean uprepparttar 134935 earth and be good eco stewards changed. It became a screaming protest against disturbingrepparttar 134936 world in any way. Things like logging, use of animals for food or clothes and drilling for oil were no longer going to be tolerated. Environmentalists wanted to put an end to human domination ofrepparttar 134937 planet. The old enemy was large corporations that saved their bottom line atrepparttar 134938 cost ofrepparttar 134939 cleanliness and safety of communities where they operated factories. The new enemy is us!

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