## Pasteur

Written by Terry Dashner

918-451-0270, Terry Dashner

I think you will benefit from this story told by author Robert Hastings. Dr. Hastings is a native of Illinois and has written many books with stories which are as good as, or better than, this one. Enjoy.

Although Robert Koch proved to world that diseases are transmitted by microbes or germs invisible to human eye, it was French chemist Louis Pasteur who discovered how to use weakened microbes to inoculate against all kinds of infectious diseases.

His first successes were with anthrax and chicken cholera. Next he turned to a search for deadly virus of hydrophobia. But before he could develop a serum of weakened hydrophobia microbes, he must first find and isolate killer virus.

To do this, it was necessary for Pasteur to experiment with dogs that were mad with rabies. In lab he would stick his beard within inches of their fangs so as to suck froth into glass tubes. Using these specimens, obtained at such risk of life, he hunted microbe of hydrophobia.

And succeed he did. But serum had to be proven. The first subject was a nine-year-old boy by name of Joseph Meister from Alsace. His mother came crying to Pasteur’s laboratory, leading her pitiful, whimpering, scared child, hardly able to walk from fourteen gashes inflicted by a mad dog. ‘Save my little boy,’ she begged. It was night of July 6, 1885, when Joseph became first recipient of weakened microbes of hydrophobia in human history. After fourteen inoculations, boy went home to Alsace and had never a sign of dreadful disease.

## The why behind ‘1+1=2

Written by Khalil A. Cassimally

What does 1+1 equal to? Too easy of a question, you might think. Well yes answer is 2. There were not any traps whatsoever. But why is it that 1+1 equals to 2? What’s logic behind? This is an amazingly complex question actually.

At first I was asking this question to literally everybody I met, just for fun. But then I realised that why behind 1+1=2 may not be that simple; it was in other words of no joking matter.

People always say truth comes from a child. That was my chance to consequently test this saying. I asked my kid brother aged 6 why he thought 1+1 gave 2. Here is his answer: “If you take a sweet from market and put it with one sweet in your pocket, with how many sweets will you end up? TWO!”

Well he is half correct. He preferred to do an analogy with sweets instead of dealing with figures. In this particular case, it may have been a better idea. However there was something missing in this answer. I came to find out that it would be missing in my answer as well.

To get a really clear and concise answer however, I decided to email some persons who work with mathematics everyday. I mean astronomers. Although I only received one reply – which came from Dr. Brad Carter of University of Southern Queensland, thanks to thee – I knew that answer that I was provided with matched (and even overlapped – see below) my original idea upon this complex question of why 1 and 1 makes 2.

My original thoughts were roughly as stated below: “Somebody wanted to give number ‘1’ name ‘one.’ He also wanted to give number ‘2’ name ’two’. So two ‘1’s, which is equivalent to 1+1, will gives two.”

As my brother, I’m only half correct and we both made same mistake. We had not mention that two is defined as two ones. If we had done so, we would have consequently come to answer of why 1+1 equals to 2! Confused? Well Dr. Carter’s answer might be of some help. This exactly what he said: “The answer is simple: it is simply a matter of definition. ‘2’ is name we give to result of process ‘1+1’”

Cont'd on page 2 ==>