Of course everybody was innocent but...

Written by Slawek

I have just read in "Rzeczpospolita" an excellent "Short History ofrepparttar Jews in Poland", describingrepparttar 126021 tragedy of one ofrepparttar 126022 most significant ancient cultures which survived till our times. It happened so thatrepparttar 126023 Jewish nation, persecuted by VARIOUS SPIRITS OF THE TIMES, found several centuries of peace in Poland, located in Central Europe. 

Due to that fact, sincerepparttar 126024 11th century it had been developing, along with one ofrepparttar 126025 Slavonic tribes, an interesting culture ofrepparttar 126026 contemporary Poland. Readingrepparttar 126027 text of Stefan Bratkowski I remembered another text fromrepparttar 126028 correspondence of Jerzy Stempowski (Hostowiec) with Jerzy Giedroyc, published by Czytelnik in 1998. As I was reading it, I was fascinated withrepparttar 126029 live HISTORY, not distorted by historians, politicians, ideologists and journalists. Let me quote some ofrepparttar 126030 fragments fromrepparttar 126031 first volum(pp. 134 - 154) ofrepparttar 126032 correspondence of "Prince" Giedroyc with one ofrepparttar 126033 most interesting, most open minds ofrepparttar 126034 20th Century, educator of several generations of Polish humanists, Jerzy Stempowski. It was inrepparttar 126035 1950s:  

"Bern, July 18, 1957  The biggest danger forrepparttar 126036 Jews is their own extremity and intolerance, eventually effecting everybody andrepparttar 126037 hardest forrepparttar 126038 helpless andrepparttar 126039 innocent. I don't see any remedy for this. Jewish community is too fragmented, too diverse, to find a recipe that would satisfy everybody". "It is a feeling for more private use."

"Between 1904 and 1930 there occurred irreversible changes amongrepparttar 126040 Poles as well as amongrepparttar 126041 Jews. Onrepparttar 126042 Polish part, those wererepparttar 126043 results ofrepparttar 126044 nation-based state concept ofrepparttar 126045 National Democracy party (Endecja). That concept effectedrepparttar 126046 whole period betweenrepparttar 126047 two world wars. The changes onrepparttar 126048 Jewish part were equally deep. In 1904, did anybody see Jews shooting their guns, escorting prisoners with guns in their hands or training granade throwing? NO. Nobody would even believe such a possibility. And in 1917-1918 those strange scenes became reality atrepparttar 126049 whole area engulfed withrepparttar 126050 soviet revolution and penetratedrepparttar 126051 imagination of not just Poles but other people as well."  "Those changes should be completed withrepparttar 126052 anti-Semitism ofrepparttar 126053 West, why not mention it? With a few exceptions, it were notrepparttar 126054 Polish people who helped Hitler to exterminate Jews. It was done by their parla to exterminate Jews. It was done by England and America, doing a campaign and watching that nobody escapesrepparttar 126055 net. It was done by their parliaments, approvingrepparttar 126056 policy and passing laws when everybody knew what it was all about. Evenrepparttar 126057 American Jews were passively watching it, apparently they believed thatrepparttar 126058 slaughter ofrepparttar 126059 Jews in Europe is a lesser calamity than their massive migration to America. And Palestine? I thinkrepparttar 126060 leaders and participants ofrepparttar 126061 project did not neglect anything to create conflicts, which cannot be resolved. Allrepparttar 126062 powers ofrepparttar 126063 West contributed to that situation but their citizens did not intend to live in Palestine. All these events were unthinkable in 1904 but they dramatically alteredrepparttar 126064 basic components ofrepparttar 126065 so called "Jewish issue."

Don’t you think we should ask here whetherrepparttar 126066 American zealousness to explainrepparttar 126067 complex aspects ofrepparttar 126068 Polish- Jewish conflicts is not aimed at distractingrepparttar 126069 world attention from their own (American), not too impressing, attitude torepparttar 126070 holocaust?  What did Uncle Sam and robust Churchill do withrepparttar 126071 reports of Jan Karski, what did IMB built its power on, what didrepparttar 126072 American newspaper say aboutrepparttar 126073 „Jewish plot”, what were Roosevelt’s and Churchill’s views ofrepparttar 126074 “Jewish issue”?  In 1920s and 30s inrepparttar 126075 United States, just as in Poland, there were limitations in acepting Jewish candidates to study medicine and numerus clausus atrepparttar 126076 Columbia University as late as 1950s; for most part quoted after "Rzeczpospolita", Krzysztof Maslon. (Years ago I had an opportunity to talk with an American psychologist who was not accepted torepparttar 126077 Columbia University in late 40s because he had filled outrepparttar 126078 university questionnaire). 

It is not so much an apology as a piece of shameful evidence ofrepparttar 126079 so called extravagancies ofrepparttar 126080 "TIME SPIRIT". "Bern, October 27, 1957 The first thing that I noticed after I had come back was a note fromrepparttar 126081 last page of Le Monde of October 26 - onrepparttar 126082 banquet at Cerle militare to commemoraterepparttar 126083 30th anniversary ofrepparttar 126084 Szwarcbard’s trial”. "I hopedrepparttar 126085 Jewish community would not come back that infamous episode which, like a micro-universe, focused allrepparttar 126086 human meanness and filth of our times. Nothing was missing there: neither collaboration with GPU andrepparttar 126087 Jewish nationalists, nor distorting historic facts forrepparttar 126088 purpose of propaganda -repparttar 126089 history ofrepparttar 126090 Ukrainian independence movement written for that occasion by Jewish journalists must have been a model for Stalin - norrepparttar 126091 revolt ofrepparttar 126092 mob, animated by politicians, againstrepparttar 126093 elite ofrepparttar 126094 Jewish society which has never really recovered from that defeat". "Sincerepparttar 126095 Jewish organizations inrepparttar 126096 United States did not get scared byrepparttar 126097 driven hunt and refused financial support, allrepparttar 126098 costs ofrepparttar 126099 world campaign againstrepparttar 126100 Ukraine were covered fromrepparttar 126101 contributions ofrepparttar 126102 poorest Jewish people in Poland, who were enticed into collective hysteria byrepparttar 126103 political leaders who were allied withrepparttar 126104 National Democracy (Endecja) and were trying to reach marshal Pilsudski in that way." 

The Roots of Anti-Americanism

Written by Sam Vaknin

The United States is one ofrepparttar last remaining land empires. That it is maderepparttar 126020 butt of opprobrium and odium is hardly surprising, or unprecedented. Empires - Rome,repparttar 126021 British,repparttar 126022 Ottomans - were always targeted byrepparttar 126023 disgruntled,repparttar 126024 disenfranchised andrepparttar 126025 dispossessed and by their self-appointed delegates,repparttar 126026 intelligentsia.

Yet, even by historical standards, America seems to be provoking blanket repulsion.

The Pew Research Center published last December a report titled "Whatrepparttar 126027 World Thinks in 2002". "The World", was reduced byrepparttar 126028 pollsters to 44 countries and 38,000 interviewees. Two other surveys published last year - byrepparttar 126029 German Marshall Fund andrepparttar 126030 Chicago Council on Foreign Relations - largely supported Pew's findings.

The most startling and unambiguous revelation wasrepparttar 126031 extent of anti-American groundswell everywhere: among America's NATO allies, in developing countries, Muslim nations and even in eastern Europe where Americans, only a decade ago, were lionized as much-adulated liberators.

"People aroundrepparttar 126032 world embrace things American and, atrepparttar 126033 same time, decry U.S. influence on their societies. Similarly, pluralities in most ofrepparttar 126034 nations surveyed complain about American unilateralism."- expoundsrepparttar 126035 Pew report.

Yet, even this "embrace of things American" is ambiguous.

Violently "independent", inanely litigious and quarrelsome, solipsistically provincial, and fatuously ignorant - this nation of video clips and sound bites,repparttar 126036 United States, is often perceived as trying to impose its narcissistic pseudo-culture upon a world exhausted by wars hot and cold and corrupted by vacuous materialism.

Recent accounting scandals, crumbling markets, political scams, technological setbacks, and rising social tensions have revealed how rotten and inherently contradictoryrepparttar 126037 US edifice is and how concerned are Americans with appearances rather than substance.

To religious fundamentalists, America isrepparttar 126038 Great Satan, a latter-day Sodom and Gomorrah, a cesspool of immorality and spiritual decay. To many European liberals,repparttar 126039 United states is a throwback to darker ages of religious zealotry, pernicious bigotry, virulent nationalism, andrepparttar 126040 capricious misrule ofrepparttar 126041 mighty.

According to most recent surveys by Gallup, MORI,repparttar 126042 Council for Secular Humanism,repparttar 126043 US Census Bureau, and others -repparttar 126044 vast majority of Americans are chauvinistic, moralizing, bible-thumping, cantankerous, and trigger-happy. About half of them believe that Satan exists - not as a metaphor, but physically.

America has a record defense spending per head, a vertiginous rate of incarceration, amongrepparttar 126045 highest numbers of legal executions and gun-related deaths. It is still engaged in atavistic debates about abortion,repparttar 126046 role of religion, and whether to teachrepparttar 126047 theory of evolution.

According to a series of special feature articles in The Economist, America is generally well-liked in Europe, but less so than before. It is utterly detested byrepparttar 126048 Moslem street, even in "progressive" Arab countries, such as Egypt and Jordan. Everyone - Europeans and Arabs, Asians and Africans - thinks that "the spread of American ideas and customs is a bad thing."

Admittedly, we typically devalue most that which we have formerly idealized and idolized.

Torepparttar 126049 liberal-minded,repparttar 126050 United States of America reifiedrepparttar 126051 most noble, lofty, and worthy values, ideals, and causes. It was a dream inrepparttar 126052 throes of becoming, a vision of liberty, peace, justice, prosperity, and progress. Its system, though far from flawless, was considered superior - both morally and functionally - to any ever conceived by Man.

Such unrealistic expectations inevitably and invariably lead to disenchantment, disillusionment, bitter disappointment, seething anger, and a sense of humiliation for having been thus deluded, or, rather, self-deceived. This backlash is further exacerbated byrepparttar 126053 haughty hectoring ofrepparttar 126054 ubiquitous American missionaries ofrepparttar 126055 "free-market-cum-democracy" church.

Americans everywhere aggressively preachrepparttar 126056 superior virtues of their homeland. Edward K. Thompson, managing editor of "Life" (1949-1961) warned against this propensity to feign omniscience and omnipotence: "Life (the magazine) must be curious, alert, erudite and moral, but it must achieve this without being holier-than-thou, a cynic, a know-it-all, or a Peeping Tom."

Thus, America's foreign policy - i.e., its presence and actions abroad - is, by far, its foremost vulnerability.

According torepparttar 126057 Pew study,repparttar 126058 image ofrepparttar 126059 Unites States as a benign world power slipped dramatically inrepparttar 126060 space of two years in Slovakia (down 14 percent), in Poland (-7), inrepparttar 126061 Czech Republic (-6) and even in fervently pro-Western Bulgaria (-4 percent). It rose exponentially in Ukraine (up 10 percent) and, most astoundingly, in Russia (+24 percent) - but from a very low base.

The crux may be thatrepparttar 126062 USA maintains one set of sanctimonious standards at home while egregiously and nonchalantly flouting them far and wide. Hencerepparttar 126063 fervid demonstrations against its military presence in places as disparate as South Korea, Japan,repparttar 126064 Philippines, and Saudi Arabia.

In January 2000, Staff Sergeant Frank J. Ronghi sexually molested, forcibly sodomized ("indecent acts with a child") and then murdered an 11-years old girl inrepparttar 126065 basement of her drab building in Kosovo, when her father went to market to do some shopping. His is by no meansrepparttar 126066 most atrocious link in a long chain of brutalities inflicted by American soldiers overseas. In all these cases,repparttar 126067 perpetrators were removed fromrepparttar 126068 scene to face justice - or, more often, a travesty thereof - back home.

Americans - officials, scholars, peacemakers, non-government organizations - maintain a colonial state of mind. Backward natives come cheap, their lives dispensable, their systems of governance and economies inherently inferior. The white man's burden must not be encumbered byrepparttar 126069 vagaries of primitive indigenous jurisprudence. Hence America's fierce resistance to and indefatigable obstruction ofrepparttar 126070 International Criminal Court.

Opportunistic multilateralism notwithstanding,repparttar 126071 USA still owesrepparttar 126072 poorer nations ofrepparttar 126073 world close to $200 million - its arrears torepparttar 126074 UN peacekeeping operations, usually asked to mop up after an American invasion or bombing. It not only refuses to subject its soldiers torepparttar 126075 jurisdiction ofrepparttar 126076 World Criminal Court - but its facilities torepparttar 126077 inspectors ofrepparttar 126078 Chemical Weapons Convention, its military torepparttar 126079 sanctions ofrepparttar 126080 (anti) land mines treaty andrepparttar 126081 provisions ofrepparttar 126082 Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty, and its industry torepparttar 126083 environmental constraints ofrepparttar 126084 Kyoto Protocol,repparttar 126085 rulings ofrepparttar 126086 World Trade Organization, andrepparttar 126087 rigors of global intellectual property rights.

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