Noblewomen: the first ladies

Written by Jan-Olov von Wowern

Noblewomen:repparttar first ladies!

by Jan-Olov von Wowern

The role and position of noblewomen in later medieval Europe is a subject about which comparatively little has been written. The noblewomen, particularly those ofrepparttar 138688 higher nobility, usually found themselves in a situation where it was taken for granted they would marry and strengthenrepparttar 138689 position ofrepparttar 138690 family by forming a union with a man of similar (or better) standing. Then, as now,repparttar 138691 importance ofrepparttar 138692 continuation ofrepparttar 138693 family line was a constant concern. For gentlemen who were "upwardly mobile"repparttar 138694 marriage to a noblewoman of high standing could berepparttar 138695 means of getting estates and allies.

It was not unusual to find noblewomen holding and inheriting land and estates. She could have inherited them from her father, brother or a deceased husband, and in many regions this was fully accepted. The male line in a noble family could become extinct for a number of reasons:repparttar 138696 sons could die onrepparttar 138697 battlefield, they could die of one of many diseases, some would go intorepparttar 138698 Church and be celibate, etc. So in many casesrepparttar 138699 continuation ofrepparttar 138700 entire family depended onrepparttar 138701 succession throughrepparttar 138702 female line, which (certainly inrepparttar 138703 case of absence of male heirs) was usually accepted.

There wasrepparttar 138704 problem withrepparttar 138705 dowries, and to avoidrepparttar 138706 breaking up ofrepparttar 138707 estates there was duringrepparttar 138708 later 13th century and onwards a growing emphasis on male primogeniture, that is,repparttar 138709 firstborn son inheritedrepparttar 138710 estates (and where appropriaterepparttar 138711 title that went with it). The dower became more and more restricted over time duringrepparttar 138712 later Middle Ages, until they were finally abolished and became more of a symbol. This helped to stoprepparttar 138713 dispersal ofrepparttar 138714 estates outsiderepparttar 138715 original family.

How To Shop When You HATE To Shop

Written by Diana Pemberton-Sikes

Do you hate to shop for clothes?

According to a recent report by WGSN (Worth Global Style Network), 28% of women HATE to shop for clothes. To them, it's a four-letter word that produces stress and anxiety any time they think about hittingrepparttar mall.

Now forrepparttar 138687 26% of women who absolutely LOVE to shop and frequently ease their woes with retail therapy, this may be inconceivable. How can anyone NOT enjoyrepparttar 138688 thrill ofrepparttar 138689 hunt orrepparttar 138690 big bargain score? Who doesn't love modeling new clothes in front ofrepparttar 138691 mirror or being asked incessantly, “Great outfit! Is it new?”

The answer? Plenty of people.

And for many women who hate to shop,repparttar 138692 problem has little to do with money. In fact, according to WGSN, when these women actually force themselves to go buy clothes, they rarely look for bargains.

Instead, they tend to avoidrepparttar 138693 mall because:

1.They don't know what kinds of clothes look best on them.

2.They don't follow fashion and don't want to look ridiculous or dated in their purchases.

3.They're easily flustered when they can't find what they're looking for quickly.

4.They feel uncomfortable trying on clothes in dressing rooms.

5.They may have put on a lot of weight and either can't find clothes that fit or don't want to facerepparttar 138694 fact that they need a larger size.

6.They hate crowds.

Does any of this sound familiar?

If you can really relate to this list, here are some tips to make shopping easier, less expensive, and far less frustrating than you may have experienced inrepparttar 138695 past:

1. Determine Your Body Shape

Start by taking a good look at your birthday suit inrepparttar 138696 mirrorrepparttar 138697 next time you change clothes or step out ofrepparttar 138698 bath. Are your hips bigger than your chest? Your chest bigger than your hips? Is your waistrepparttar 138699 same size as your chest and hips? Does your body resemble an hourglass? Make a note. Look for clothes shapedrepparttar 138700 same way you are when you hitrepparttar 138701 stores. This will lead to fast success and minimal frustration.

2. Determine Your Lifestyle

What kinds of clothes work best in your current situation? Do you need business wear? Jeans? Ball gowns? If your lifestyle is 60% work, 20% social, and 20% leisure, for example, or 90% work and 5% social and 5% leisure, then your wardrobe should reflect as much. Otherwise, you may be hard pressed to find something to wear for those activities where you spendrepparttar 138702 least amount of time.

3. Assess Your Needs and Make a List

Once you know your shape and your lifestyle, it's time to go through your closet and see what you need. If you're short on tops, put them onrepparttar 138703 list. Feel fabulous in a coatdress? Add a few more. Love your black A-line skirt? Buy another one in dark blue.

Remember: if you start with a list, you can immediately hone in on those pieces inrepparttar 138704 store. When you only look for what you need, you're a lot less likely to get distracted - or confused.

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