Naming Hurricanes

Written by Edward Vella

Have you ever wondered how hurricanes are named ? This is what we intend to find out with research onrepparttar conventions used now and those adopted and discarded throughrepparttar 109426 years of weather watching.

Inrepparttar 109427 old times, hurricanes were given a saint's name, depending upon which saint's feast day didrepparttar 109428 hurricane happen on. Just beforerepparttar 109429 second world war, another system was introduced that named hurricanes with latitude-longitude positions. However, it proved to be a bit of a problem when communicating because people's names were much easier to comprehend and remember.

Surprisingly,repparttar 109430 object that most influenced modern naming conventions isrepparttar 109431 1941 fictional novel by George Stewart called Storm. In fact right after its release, weather stations starting naming hurricanes after women. The book narratesrepparttar 109432 exploit of a storm and its victims during its twelve day course after its touchdown inside California. Atrepparttar 109433 start ofrepparttar 109434 story we meet a meteorologist that has a thing of naming storms after women, which he does because it isrepparttar 109435 only way that helps him to process his job's information. Maria isrepparttar 109436 name that he gives torepparttar 109437 storm in this book.

Ten years after a new proposal started being used which named hurricanes by using a phonetic alphabet (Able, Baker, Charlie) thinking that it would make communications easier, just like with radio. This proved to be also too confusing, so using female names was readopted within two years.

It was in 1978 which finally setrepparttar 109438 naming method as it is tpday, which includes people's names from both genders. The names being used, are designated at international meetings ofrepparttar 109439 World Meteorological Organization. These names have an English, French, Spanish, and Dutch origin since hurricanes hit different regions from aroundrepparttar 109440 globe and are tracked byrepparttar 109441 public and weather services of many countries.

A Comparative Study of 2 Strategies namely Concept Mapping & Lecture Method on learning Concepts of Nobel Prize in Physics

Written by Dr.G.Kumuda

Bluetooth technology in computers and WAP ( Wireless Applicatio Protocol ) in electronics and human genome in medical science are just a few ofrepparttar numerous advances that have taken place recently. These advances indicate that science plays a vital role in modern society. Hence it becomes essential forrepparttar 109425 science educationist to enhance meaningful learning, as today's students are future architects of modern society. Hencerepparttar 109426 investigator has adopted Concept Mapping as one ofrepparttar 109427 strategies to introducerepparttar 109428 concepts Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC for which Nobel Prize has been awarded duringrepparttar 109429 year 2000.

Concept Map

A Concept Map is a schematic device for representing a set of concept meanings embedded in a framework of propositions. In a Concept Map,repparttar 109430 more general, more inclusive concepts should be atrepparttar 109431 apex ofrepparttar 109432 Concept Map, with progressively more specific, less inclusive concepts arranged below them. Sincerepparttar 109433 concepts are arranged hierarchically, meaningful learning precedes more easily as new concepts or concept meanings are subsumed under broader more inclusive concepts.

Present Study

Inrepparttar 109434 present studyrepparttar 109435 investigator introducedrepparttar 109436 2 concepts namely Semiconductor Heterostructures, IC through two different methods namely Concept Mapping Method and Lecture Method. The XI standard students of N.K.T.National Girls' Higher Secondary School, India (whererepparttar 109437 investigator is working) studying under State Board syllabus formedrepparttar 109438 sample. The class was divided into two groups of 20 students each and was treated as Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG). Two B.Ed. trainees (K.R.Kavitha and N.V.Jaya Bharathi) of N.K.T.National College of Education carriedrepparttar 109439 experimental part ofrepparttar 109440 research study developed byrepparttar 109441 investigator. Ms N.V.Jayabharathi taughtrepparttar 109442 two concepts to Control Group through Lecture Method while Ms.K.R.Kavitha taughtrepparttar 109443 same concepts to Experimental Group atrepparttar 109444 same time through Concept Mapping Method.

Objectives ofrepparttar 109445 Study

1.To findrepparttar 109446 effectiveness of Concept Mapping strategy over Lecture Method on achievement in Physics of XI standard students.

2.To studyrepparttar 109447 effect of Scientific Attitude on achievement in Physics of students learning through Lecture Method.

3. To studyrepparttar 109448 effect of Scientific Attitude on achievement in Physics of students learning through Concept Mapping Method.

Data Collection

A pre-test was administered for bothrepparttar 109449 groups to assessrepparttar 109450 students' initial knowledge. Thenrepparttar 109451 two concepts were introduced by two different methods to respective groups. Finally a post-test was administered to bothrepparttar 109452 groups. The Experimental Design, which is pre-test- treatment - post-test is shown in Table 1

Experimental Design

Table 1

GroupS.S.pretest T.M.Posttest



where SS means Sample Strength, TM means Teaching Method, AT means Achievement Test in Physics, C.M.M means Concept Mapping Method, L.M. means Lectire Method

The two B.Ed. trainees carriedrepparttar 109453 research programme simultaneously atrepparttar 109454 same time and were given one hour to completerepparttar 109455 programme. By simultaneous implementation ofrepparttar 109456 programme any error due to fatigue etc is neglected. A Science Attitude Scale developed by Dr. Mrs. Avinash Grewal was also administered atrepparttar 109457 end ofrepparttar 109458 session.

The tools used inrepparttar 109459 study are

1.Achievement Test developed byrepparttar 109460 investigator 2.Science Attitude Scale 3.Concept Maps 4.Lesson Plan

Achievement Test

The Achievement Test consisting of 25 multiple-choice questions was developed byrepparttar 109461 investigator and each question carries one mark. The Achievement Test served as both pre-test and post-test. The investigator utilizedrepparttar 109462 Scientific Attitude Scale (SAS) developed by Dr. Mrs. Avinash Grewal to determinerepparttar 109463 attitudes of XI standard students participating inrepparttar 109464 research programme. The Science Attitude Scale (SAS) consisted of 20 items where 10 positive items (S.No 2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16,18,20) and 10 negative items (S.No. 1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19) are present.


Each ofrepparttar 109465 10 positive items onrepparttar 109466 scale is assigned a weight ranging from 4 (strongly agree ) to 0 (strongly disagree). Inrepparttar 109467 case of 10 negative itemsrepparttar 109468 scale scoring is reversed ranging from 0 (strongly agree) to 4(strongly disagree). The attitude score of a subject isrepparttar 109469 sum total of scores in all twenty items inrepparttar 109470 scale. Thus a maximum of eighty scores can be obtained byrepparttar 109471 subject.

Concept Maps

Seven Concept Maps pertaining torepparttar 109472 2 concepts under consideration were developed byrepparttar 109473 investigator.

Lesson Plan

A Lesson Plan according to whichrepparttar 109474 concepts were introduced by Lecture Method was also developed byrepparttar 109475 investigator.

Data Analysis

The analysis was performed by teachingrepparttar 109476 two concepts to two groups namely Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG) through Lecture Method and Concept Mapping Method. Before commencingrepparttar 109477 lessonrepparttar 109478 pre-test was given and afterrepparttar 109479 lesson was taughtrepparttar 109480 post-test was again administered.

The Gain Score of Lecture Method is given by GL = LPO - LPR where GL is gain score of Lecture Method LPO is post-test score of Lecture Method LPR is pre-test score of Lecture Method

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