Methods of Improving Boiler Efficiency

Written by Thomas Yoon

Withrepparttar rising cost of fuel prices, industries that use steam boilers for heating or power generation are hard pressed to operate at peak efficiencies.

While steam consumption, leakages, and other heat transmission losses can contribute torepparttar 150058 overall energy bill, this article focuses onrepparttar 150059 heart ofrepparttar 150060 steam generator -repparttar 150061 boiler.

Controllingrepparttar 150062 boiler is of utmost importance in any steam generation energy saving program. Below are some ways to improve boiler efficiencies:

1. Reducing excess air 2. Installing economizer 3. Reducing scale and deposits 4. Reducing blow down 5. Recovering waste heat from blow down 6. Stopping dynamic operation 7. Reducing boiler pressure 8. Operating at peak efficiency 9. Preheating combustion air 10.Switching from steam to air atomization 11.Switching to lower cost fuel

Reducing Excess Air

By farrepparttar 150063 most common reason for energy inefficiencies in a boiler can be attributed torepparttar 150064 use of excess air during combustion atrepparttar 150065 burners. When there is more air than is required for combustion,repparttar 150066 extra air becomes heated up and is finally discharged out torepparttar 150067 atmosphere. However, there are reasons for putting in some extra air for combustion - to compensate for imperfect burner fuel-air mixing conditions, air density changes, control system "slop", burner maintenance, fuel composition and viscosity variation, and imperfect atomizing steam or air controls for burners.

Adjustingrepparttar 150068 fuel-air ratio for combustion can be quite tricky. Ifrepparttar 150069 fuel is too much as compared torepparttar 150070 air, incomplete combustion occurs. This will give rise to carbon soot deposits insiderepparttar 150071 combustion chamber or even overrepparttar 150072 boiler tubes.

The consequences of having soot deposits overrepparttar 150073 heat transfer surfaces andrepparttar 150074 potential of having explosive flue gases inside repparttar 150075 boiler are much worst than losing a slight amount of energy throughrepparttar 150076 exhaust stack. Therefore, many boiler operators choose to adjust their burners to be slightly on excess air.

Installing Economizer

This is only appropriate if there are insufficient heat transfer surfaces inrepparttar 150077 boiler. The economizer tubes may contain either circulating boiler water or circulating feed water. Becauserepparttar 150078 temperature ofrepparttar 150079 exhaust gases can be quite high,repparttar 150080 economizer tubes may be fitted with safety valves to avoid over-pressure damage. Also temperature control of feed water is required to prevent pump airlock. To avoid corrosion, careful design is needed to ensure thatrepparttar 150081 exhaust flue gas temperature does not drop belowrepparttar 150082 dew point.

Reducing Scale and Deposits

For any boiler operation, this is a must. The safety ofrepparttar 150083 boiler is at stake. Any scale or deposits will lead to reduced heat transfer that will eventually lead to overheating, reduction of mechanical strength ofrepparttar 150084 steel and finally to bursting.

This should already be inrepparttar 150085 normal daily procedure of boiler operation.

Reducing Blow down

Blow down of boiler water is discharging hot water intorepparttar 150086 drains. However, blow down is necessary to maintainrepparttar 150087 boiler water concentration of dissolved solids that are necessary for conditioningrepparttar 150088 boiler water. The dissolved solids are necessary for preventing boiler corrosion and scaling.

Flat Panel Displays - Beyond Plasma

Written by Steve Faber

The term set-top box will become something of a misnomer inrepparttar near future, as most displays will become too thin to allow a box to placed on top of them. Asrepparttar 149927 price of plasma & LCD displays has plummeted and their image quality has improved, they are popping up in homes everywhere.

Although they arerepparttar 149928 darlings ofrepparttar 149929 media andrepparttar 149930 generic for flat panel display inrepparttar 149931 minds of many, plasmas are about to be in a serious fight with other technologies forrepparttar 149932 flat panel crown.

LCD displays, seen onrepparttar 149933 desktop for years as computer monitors, and commonplace in smaller flat panel TVs, are finally increasing in size torepparttar 149934 point they are becoming a rival to plasmas inrepparttar 149935 42" – 50” size range. Picture quality is similar to plasmas; however LCDs are immune torepparttar 149936 burn-in that can affect plasma displays. This burn-in occurs when plasma units are used to display static images such as video game screens and stock or sports tickers.

Plasmas generally have an edge inrepparttar 149937 ability to produce deeper blacks and more saturated colors than LCDs. Plasmas are also better at producing full motion video than LCDs because ofrepparttar 149938 response time ofrepparttar 149939 LCD panels, although this difference is disappearing.

LCD TVs are a bit more expensive than plasmas at 42" and larger sizes, but they should last a while longer. Plasma displays should last 20,000 – 25,000 hours and LCDs should give 30,000+ hours of useful life. However,repparttar 149940 latest generation of plasma displays from NEC is claimed to have a 60,000 hour life. If that is an industry trend,repparttar 149941 traditional lifespan advantage held by LCDs may soon disappear.

Currently Sony has a 42", NEC a 40", Sharp a 45", and Samsung a 40" LCD TV or display. Samsung also hasrepparttar 149942 big one, a 46" that started shipping in early September of 2004. The Samsung 46" wasrepparttar 149943 first consumer LCD video display to have a 1080 line native resolution. This allows it to display 1080p native when that format arrives for HDTV.

Other technologies are onrepparttar 149944 horizon as well. One that has shown great promise is OLED, for Organic Light Emitting Diode. Developed by Kodak and Pioneer, this technology has been used for a few years in car stereo and cell phone displays. It's just about ready for prime time. Philips has shown a 13" unit, Samsung a 17", and Seiko-Epson has shown a 40" prototype.

OLED’s advantages are many. It actually emits it’s own light, so it requires no backlight and has better contrast than a traditional LCD. OLED displays have a wide viewing angle like a plasma display. Power usage is very low, less than 1/2 that of a traditional LCD display. At around 2mm deep, OLEDs are much thinner than either a plasma or LCD.

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