Knowledge Moves

Written by Jack Boulton

‘Knowledge comes from, and is drawn into, different organisational structures. Atrepparttar same time,repparttar 107953 notion that knowledge travels… Invites one to reconstruct communities in its wake, tracing connections afterrepparttar 107954 fact.’ (Strathern 2004: 15).

We are surrounded by knowledge in different forms. Although your own personal understanding of technology may not match that of, say, a computer programmer,repparttar 107955 computer you are using to read this piece – or, indeed,repparttar 107956 printer you used to print it – arerepparttar 107957 products of applied knowledge, products which become symbols in a particular context. Your computer may mean one thing – or nothing – to you, but to someone else in a different place it means something else. The computer programmer is perhaps a good example of how one form of knowledge can be turned on its head and transformed into something else. The programmer usesrepparttar 107958 computer to metamorphose his knowledge of programming into a piece of software which in turn is used by another to transform their knowledge… And so on. This transformation – flow – of knowledge is common in contemporary society. We are part of a culture which is obsessed with information. I intend here to describe how information is produced, particularly scientific facts, using examples from Power (1997) and Latour and Woolgar (1979). I will also use evidence from Strathern (2004), Tsoukas (1997) and Latour (1999) to illustrate how knowledge changes meaning as it travels.

Constructing Fact. In Laboratory Life (1979), Latour and Woolgar apply sociological theory to their ethnography of a scientific laboratory. They successfully tracerepparttar 107959 construction of a scientific fact torepparttar 107960 creation of order out of disorder. To them,repparttar 107961 fundamental feature of a ‘fact’ is that it does not appear to be constructed by any outside forces: it is a taken-for-granted statement unflawed by modality. However they point out that inrepparttar 107962 laboratory situation,repparttar 107963 environment can be broken down into ‘specific histories’ which have enabled items such as scientific equipment to become available at a certain point in time. Bachelard (1953) refers to laboratory equipment as ‘reified theory’, that is, that each piece of equipment is a construct of a theory that has been proven factual at a previous point in time.

Auditing People. The concept ofrepparttar 107964 ‘audit society’ was pinpointed by Michael Power (1996, 1997) and concerns a very particular pattern of knowledge designed to ‘develop essentially similar measures or conclusions from an examination ofrepparttar 107965 same evidence, data or records’ (American Accounting Association 1966: 10). Essentiallyrepparttar 107966 audit is a process by which information is gathered in order to verify that something is happening as it should do, and/or to suggest methods by which this activity can be adjusted in order to function more effectively. Inrepparttar 107967 area of health and medicine, one use of audit data is ‘to stimulate more effective use of increasingly limited resources by creating an element of competition between those who supply medical services… And those who must purchase those services.’ (Power 1997: 104). Tsoukas (1997) also states that ‘… In a modern hospitalrepparttar 107968 sick person is turned into an information-rich patient; information about his or her illness can be systematically gathered –repparttar 107969 information speaks for, describes, representsrepparttar 107970 patient. And whenrepparttar 107971 NHS computerises its files, a patient can be emailed, so to speak, from one part ofrepparttar 107972 country torepparttar 107973 other.’ (1997: 833).

Here already we can see that information is onrepparttar 107974 move. From its origination withrepparttar 107975 patient, an illness is reduced to a number (for example, an ICD-10 [1] code) and then moved firstly to another part ofrepparttar 107976 hospital and then to somewhere completely different. The illness itself will have significant meaning torepparttar 107977 patient, whilstrepparttar 107978 ICD-10 code will have a different meaning depending on who is usingrepparttar 107979 data. Another example isrepparttar 107980 QALY (Quality-Adjusted Life Year) which is calculated using patient-reported data obtained by using various measures and tests in interview situations [2] (Hyland 1997). The QALY is a figure between 0 and 1, and is an indication of how good or bad a medical treatment is based solely on how long it keeps a patient alive for and at how high a quality of life. Whereasrepparttar 107981 experience of illness is likely to have a significant meaning inrepparttar 107982 life ofrepparttar 107983 patient, it is equally likely thatrepparttar 107984 QALY will have very little meaning to them. It will, however, be of significant interest to a health economist or to individuals working withinrepparttar 107985 field of medicine. Of course I am not striving to point out that information is interesting to different people. What is important here that it is essentiallyrepparttar 107986 same information that is undergoing a process of change as it moves around. It is also worth pointing out that after it has undergone its first change it is unlikely to be of interest torepparttar 107987 person responsible for reporting it.

Resolving Conflicts By Turning Negatives Into Positives

Written by Etienne A. Gibbs, MSW, Management Consultant and Trainer

PERMISSION TO REPUBLISH: This article may be republished in newsletters and on web sites provided attribution is provided torepparttar author, and it appears withrepparttar 107952 included copyright, resource box and live web site link. Email notice of intent to publish is appreciated but not required.

There are five techniques that I shall share with you. They have been proved to be effective in resolving, minimizing, and preventing conflicts. And by conflicts I am referring to any ofrepparttar 107953 following that take place between two or more people: misunderstanding, miscommunications, arguments, disagreements, mixed messages, fighting, etc.

A. I-Message: Use this approach to convey a message to someone when:

* your communication and that ofrepparttar 107954 other person might become hostile;

*repparttar 107955 communication might become a shouting match; or

*repparttar 107956 words might turn to physical confrontation.

Put an I-Message into action by following these sequence of steps:

1. Get his attention. (Call person by name.) "John, Bob, Sue, Mary, ..."

2. Identify your emotion. (Identify and namerepparttar 107957 emotion you are feeling.) "I feel/am happy, angry, mad, excited, etc. ..."

3. Name his misconduct. (Identifyrepparttar 107958 behavior that is offensive.) " ...when you slamrepparttar 107959 door, spill juice onrepparttar 107960 clean floor, call me names, etc. ..."

4. Staterepparttar 107961 consequence(s). (Identifyrepparttar 107962 consequence that you wish him/her to change. And stop! Be extremely cautious not to ramble because by doing so you runrepparttar 107963 risk of throwing a spark onrepparttar 107964 cinders.) "... because it/you causes me to jump, have to remoprepparttar 107965 floor, be disrespected, etc."

Putting it together it should sound like this: "John, I get angry when you slamrepparttar 107966 door because it makes me jumpy." (Stop! Wait for a response!)

Research has shown thatrepparttar 107967 response is 95-98% non-confrontational or aggressive.) Remember: This approach letsrepparttar 107968 person know that, although you disapprove of his (or her) behavior, you still care about him.

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