Know XML

Written by Pawan Bangar,Birbals,India

Introduction to XML

XML--- extensible markup Language --- is an exciting development in web technology. It isrepparttar youngest and most comprehensive of markup Language. (Markup refers to any thing on a document that adds special meaning to a particular text; for example, bold text is a form of markup). This language gotrepparttar 107782 name Extensible Markup Language fromrepparttar 107783 characteristic that is not restricted to fixed set of tags, as is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). An XML user creates his own tags according to need. A tag is a sequence of characters in a markup language used to provide information, such as formatting specifications, about a document.

Markup languages are roughly classified into three types:

•Stylistic ----- defines character presentation; for example bold, italics, underline, font etc. •Structural ----- definerepparttar 107784 structure ofrepparttar 107785 document as for heading and paragraph. •Semantic ----- informs us aboutrepparttar 107786 content ofrepparttar 107787 data, like giving a title.

SGML (Standardised Generalised Markup Language) isrepparttar 107788 mother of all markup languages and has been in existence sincerepparttar 107789 late 1960s. In 1986 it becomes an international standard for definingrepparttar 107790 markup languages. It is used to create other languages, including HTML, which is very popular for its use onrepparttar 107791 web. HTML was made by Tim Berners Lee in 1991. While on one hand SGML is very effective but complex, onrepparttar 107792 other, HTML is very easy but limited to a fixed set of tags. This situation raisedrepparttar 107793 need for a language that was as effective as SGML and atrepparttar 107794 same time as simple as HTML. This gap has now been filled by XML.

The development of XML started in 1996, when a team led by Jon Bosak of sun Microsystems began work on a project for remoulding and cuttingrepparttar 107795 inessential parts of SGML. They tookrepparttar 107796 best of SGML, guided byrepparttar 107797 experience with HTML, and produced something that was no powerful, but much simpler to use. The World Wide Web Consortium also contributes torepparttar 107798 creation and development ofrepparttar 107799 standard for XML. The specifications for XML were laid down in just 26 pages, compared torepparttar 107800 500+ page specifications that define SGML.

Although, XML looks like HTML, there is a world of a difference. While HTML specifies what each tag and attribute means and howrepparttar 107801 text define by it will look in a browser, XML usesrepparttar 107802 tag only to delimit pieces of data, and leavesrepparttar 107803 interpretation ofrepparttar 107804 data completely torepparttar 107805 application that reads it. For example, if we see "" in an XML file, it may or may not mean bold (as in HTML) ---- it may mean 'book', ‘bank' or anything else specified byrepparttar 107806 programmer. HTML is only a presentation technology ----it carries no description ofrepparttar 107807 content held within its tags ----whereas in XML a programmer can describerepparttar 107808 text in its own tag. Moreover we can specifyrepparttar 107809 importance of a tag in XML so that a hierarchy of data can be represented, which is not possible in HTML.

That Darned Old Internet Gateway!

Written by David Morse

WARNING! WARNING! DANGER! DANGER! This is just how I felt after recent experiences of helping a friend of mine get his new wireless router working. I was talking him through some ofrepparttar settings onrepparttar 107781 phone while looking at my router, which isrepparttar 107782 exact same model.

Now I am not new to computers or networking but I must say that Windows XP still throws me now and then. My friend starting reading his screen to me and mentioned Internet Gateway when he went into his Windows XP Networking Connections. There was a red flag! I told him hooooold on! Stop! Now what did you say again? He said in his Network connections he saw an icon for Internet Gateway. My immediate thought was somehow he had managed to turn onrepparttar 107783 Internet Connection Sharing or ICS.

I bopped on over to my new laptop, running XP Professional and…BAM! I hadrepparttar 107784 exact same thing on mine. I hadn’t seen this cute little icon before. Maybe I just hadn’trepparttar 107785 “just right” opportunity of noticing it before? Who knows…

In my infinite wisdom (Of not knowing what this little mysterious icon would do for o me.), I decided it must berepparttar 107786 ICS and I didn’t want that, so I right-clicked and disabledrepparttar 107787 sucka! Well, not a swift move for me. It did indeed disable it. The icon went away and so did my whole home network’s Internet connection. DOH!

I tried to simply enable it again, but as I said,repparttar 107788 icon was now gone. There was nothing to click to enable. I went through everything I could think of but none of my computers could get out torepparttar 107789 Internet thoughrepparttar 107790 router. I use a cable modem so I plugged a computer directly into it, rebootedrepparttar 107791 computer and YES, access once again. So I knewrepparttar 107792 problem had to lie withrepparttar 107793 router. It seems somehow I had managed to turn off some portion of my router by just disablingrepparttar 107794 Internet Gateway from my XP Pro.

After fumbling around for hours shutting everything down, resettingrepparttar 107795 router withrepparttar 107796 hardware reset button, reconfiguring all router settings I still could not get it to work again. I wondered if XP had actually shut downrepparttar 107797 router’s WAN port.

I finally broke down and called Linksys technical support. I first tried their online knowledgebase, which wasn’t working,repparttar 107798 online live chat, which nobody answered, and searchingrepparttar 107799 net for answers. After being on hold for quite some time, a tech finally answered and she was very polite and helpful. I knew she was going to walk me through shutting down everything and resetting and I told her I had already done this but would be willing to do whatever she suggests at this point. Well I’m glad I did. I did in fact already do everything she was having me do, but missedrepparttar 107800 sequence of steps. So let that be a lesson, do not think you’ve exhausted allrepparttar 107801 simple fixes untilrepparttar 107802 tech tells you that you have. :)

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