King NarmerWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, Upper and Lower Egypt, or two lands. The first was founded in Lower Egypt, with Botu as its capital, Papyrus as its sign, and snake as its symbol. The Southern Kingdom had Nekhen as its capital, and Lotus as its sign. King Narmer was first to unite Upper and Lower Egypt giving birth to Egypt in 3100 B. c & laying foundation for first pharaonic dynasty ,which is beginning of first Egyptian Dynasty 0.
For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: www.kingtutshop.com
He was first king of two lands wearing White Crown of Upper Egypt (looks like a bowling pin), and Red Crown of Lower Egypt. . His rule marked beginning of written history and era of dynasties, which followed in succession until 30th Dynasty. The Egyptian Dynasty ended with suicide of Cleopatra, and Roman army under Octavian taking Egypt in 30 BC.
·The Old Kingdom (2980 BC-2475 BC): During this era, principles of central government were established. Menes (Narmar) was called "the King of Both Lands and Bearer of Both Crowns". The unification of both kingdoms had a significant impact on development of Egypt in all aspects of life. Hieroglyphic writing was devised.
Kings were actively involved in securing country's borders. Trade between Egypt and Sudan was developed. Egypt, then embarked on a glorious period of its history, known as pyramid builder's age, where first pyramid of Saqqara was built. With flourishing of agriculture, industry and trade, first river fleet was introduced by Egyptians. With unification of Upper& Lower Egypt, it was necessary to establish a strong army whose headquarter was city of Menf. Narmar also established Egyptian first fleet in With beginning of third Pharaonic Dynasty in 2686 B.C, Egypt was exposed to manyraids by nomads on its eastern borders, thing that urged king Zosar to establish army with its own military traditions and its distinct banners. This army was regarded as first regular army in history, Later on, " Zosar " organized Egypt into districts where he set, companies. Moreover, he established his own royal army made up of corps, and established a substantial fleet as well. King Narmer is thought to have reigned c. 3150 BCE as first king of 1st dynasty (and/or last king of 0 dynasty) of a unified ancient Egypt. The rebus of his name as shown on his palette and on other inscriptions is composed of a chisel, thought to be read mr, above a catfish, thought to be read as n'r. King Narmer, or Catfish as he could also be called, appears thus on seal impressions from 1st Dynasty tombs of King Den (tomb) and King Ka (Tomb) at Abydos . Narmer's name and that of his possible predecessor Scorpion have also been found on pottery vessels from site of Minshat Abu Omar in eastern Delta.
Narmer's importance as probable unifier of Lower and Upper Egypt is indicated primarily by Palette and Macehead which are attributed to him. His name-rebus appear on both. But his power in region must have extended further, since Egyptian sherds inscribed with Narmer's name have also been found . The Narmer Palette was discovered by J.E.Quibell at Hierakonpolis in 1897-98. The obverse is divided into three registers, uppermost of which gives his name in a serekh flanked by human-faced bovines. The second register shows Narmer wearing White Crown of Upper Egypt smiting an enemy. The third register shows dead, nude enemies. On reverse upper register showing his name-serekh is repeated. The second register shows Narmer now wearing Red Crown of Lower Egypt, inspecting rows of nude, decapitated enemies. The third register shows a man mastering serpent-necked lions, and fourth register shows a bull destroying a town and trampling a dead enemy.
How to use anchoring for accelerated learningWritten by Stelios C. Perdios
How to use anchoring for accelerated learning.
Anchoring is a powerful NLP technique for ensuring access to our greatest personal resources. Anchoring means creating an association of ideas, feelings, thoughts or states with a specific stimulus. This technique is not new. In a famous series of experiments, Dr. Ivan Pavlov placed hungry dogs near meat so they could smell it and see it but not reach it. The meat acted as a powerful stimulus to dog’s digestive processes, causing them to salivate copiously. While dogs were in this intense state of hunger and salivation, Pavlov consistently rang a bell with a specific tone. Pavlov showed that he could then induce dog’s state of copious salivation, just by ringing bell. The sight and smell of meat was no longer needed. Pavlov had created within each dog’s central nervous system, a neurological link between sound of bell and state of hunger and salivation. All Pavlov had to do was ring same bell and dogs would salivate. In other words he had created an anchor.
Whenever a person is in an intense state where mind and body are strongly involved together and a specific stimulus is consistently and simultaneously applied at peak of state, stimulus and state become neurologically linked. Then, when ever same stimulus is applied, associated state is induced. Have you noticed how this principle is used by professional athletes? Tennis players for example often use a certain rhythm for bouncing ball to put themselves in their best state as they serve, or weight lifters use a certain pattern of breathing to induce best state just before they lift. You could if you wanted to, anchor five different resourceful states onto five digits of one hand. The states might be exuberance, confidence, motivation, decisiveness and relaxed alertness. The stimuli would be unobtrusive and you could trigger stimulus selectively, whenever you wanted and needed a boost! How would this change your life for better?