Intuition - Part I

Written by Sam Vaknin

I. The Three Intuitions

IA. Eidetic Intuitions

Intuition is supposed to be a form of direct access. Yet, direct access to what? Does it access directly "intuitions" (abstract objects, akin to numbers or properties - see "Bestowed Existence")? Are intuitionsrepparttar objects ofrepparttar 126193 mental act of Intuition? Perhaps intuition isrepparttar 126194 mind's way of interacting directly with Platonic ideals or Phenomenological "essences"? By "directly" I mean withoutrepparttar 126195 intellectual mediation of a manipulated symbol system, and withoutrepparttar 126196 benefits of inference, observation, experience, or reason.

Kant thought that both (Euclidean) space and time are intuited. In other words, he thought thatrepparttar 126197 senses interact with our (transcendental) intuitions to produce synthetic a-priori knowledge. The raw data obtained by our senses -our sensa or sensory experience - presuppose intuition. One could argue that intuition is independent of our senses. Thus, these intuitions (call them "eidetic intuitions") would not berepparttar 126198 result of sensory data, or of calculation, or ofrepparttar 126199 processing and manipulation of same. Kant's "Erscheiung" ("phenomenon", or "appearance" of an object torepparttar 126200 senses) is actually a kind of sense-intuition later processed byrepparttar 126201 categories of substance and cause. As opposed torepparttar 126202 phenomenon,repparttar 126203 "nuomenon" (thing in itself) is not subject to these categories.

Descartes' "I (think therefore I) am" is an immediate and indubitable innate intuition from which his metaphysical system is derived. Descartes' work in this respect is reminiscent of Gnosticism in whichrepparttar 126204 intuition ofrepparttar 126205 mystery ofrepparttar 126206 self leads to revelation.

Bergson described a kind of instinctual empathic intuition which penetrates objects and persons, identifies with them and, in this way, derives knowledge aboutrepparttar 126207 absolutes - "duration" (the essence of all living things) and "élan vital" (the creative life force). He wrote: "(Intuition is an) instinct that has become disinterested, self-conscious, capable of reflecting upon its object and of enlarging it indefinitely." Thus, to him, science (the use of symbols by our intelligence to describe reality) isrepparttar 126208 falsification of reality. Only art, based on intuition, unhindered by mediating thought, not warped by symbols - provides one with access to reality.

Spinoza's and Bergson's intuited knowledge ofrepparttar 126209 world as an interconnected whole is also an "eidetic intuition".

Spinoza thought that intuitive knowledge is superior to both empirical (sense) knowledge and scientific (reasoning) knowledge. It unitesrepparttar 126210 mind withrepparttar 126211 Infinite Being and reveals to it an orderly, holistic, Universe.

Friedrich Schleiermacher and Rudolf Otto discussedrepparttar 126212 religious experience ofrepparttar 126213 "numinous" (God, orrepparttar 126214 spiritual power) as a kind of intuitive, pre-lingual, and immediate feeling.

Croce distinguished "concept" (representation or classification) from "intuition" (expression ofrepparttar 126215 individuality of an objet d'art). Aesthetic interest is intuitive. Art, according to Croce and Collingwood, should be mainly concerned with expression (i.e., with intuition) as an end unto itself, unconcerned with other ends (e.g., expressing certain states of mind).

Eidetic intuitions are also similar to "paramartha satya" (the "ultimate truth") inrepparttar 126216 Madhyamika school of Buddhist thought. The ultimate truth cannot be expressed verbally and is beyond empirical (and illusory) phenomena. Eastern thought (e.g. Zen Buddhism) uses intuition (or experience) to study reality in a non-dualistic manner.

IB. Emergent Intuitions

A second type of intuition isrepparttar 126217 "emergent intuition". Subjectively,repparttar 126218 intuiting person hasrepparttar 126219 impression of a "shortcut" or even a "short circuiting" of his usually linear thought processes often based on trial and error. This type of intuition feels "magical", a quantum leap from premise to conclusion,repparttar 126220 parsimonious selection ofrepparttar 126221 useful andrepparttar 126222 workable from a myriad possibilities. Intuition, in other words, is rather like a dreamlike truncated thought process,repparttar 126223 subjective equivalent of a wormhole in Cosmology. It is often preceded by periods of frustration, dead ends, failures, and blind alleys in one's work.

The Narcissist in the Workplace

Written by Sam Vaknin


The narcissist turnsrepparttar workplace into a duplicitous hell. What to do?


To a narcissistic employer,repparttar 126192 members of his "staff" are Secondary Sources of Narcissistic Supply. Their role is to accumulaterepparttar 126193 supply (remember events that supportrepparttar 126194 grandiose self-image ofrepparttar 126195 narcissist) and to regulaterepparttar 126196 Narcissistic Supply ofrepparttar 126197 narcissist during dry spells - to adulate, adore, admire, agree, provide attention and approval, and, generally, serve as an audience to him.

The staff (or should we say "stuff"?) is supposed to remain passive. The narcissist is not interested in anything butrepparttar 126198 simplest function of mirroring. Whenrepparttar 126199 mirror acquires a personality and a life of its own,repparttar 126200 narcissist is incensed. When independent minded, an employee might be in danger of being sacked by his narcissistic employer (an act which demonstratesrepparttar 126201 employer's omnipotence).

The employee's presumption to berepparttar 126202 employer's equal by trying to befriend him (friendship is possible only among equals) injuresrepparttar 126203 employer narcissistically. He is willing to accept his employees as underlings, whose very position serves to support his grandiose fantasies.

But his grandiosity is so tenuous and rests on such fragile foundations, that any hint of equality, disagreement or need (any intimation thatrepparttar 126204 narcissist "needs" friends, for instance) threatensrepparttar 126205 narcissist profoundly. The narcissist is exceedingly insecure. It is easy to destabilise his impromptu "personality". His reactions are merely in self-defence.

Classic narcissistic behaviour is when idealisation is followed by devaluation. The devaluing attitude develops as a result of disagreements or simply because time has erodedrepparttar 126206 employee's capacity to serve as a FRESH Source of Supply.

The veteran employee, now taken for granted by his narcissistic employer, becomes uninspiring as a source of adulation, admiration and attention. The narcissist always seeks new thrills and stimuli.

The narcissist is notorious for his low threshold of resistance to boredom. His behaviour is impulsive and his biography tumultuous precisely because of his need to introduce uncertainty and risk to what he regards as "stagnation" or "slow death" (i.e., routine). Most interactions inrepparttar 126207 workplace are part ofrepparttar 126208 rut – and thus constitute a reminder of this routine – deflatingrepparttar 126209 narcissist's grandiose fantasies.

Narcissists do many unnecessary, wrong and even dangerous things in pursuit ofrepparttar 126210 stabilisation of their inflated self-image.

Narcissists feel suffocated by intimacy, or byrepparttar 126211 constant reminders ofrepparttar 126212 REAL, nitty-gritty world out there. It reduces them, makes them realiserepparttar 126213 Grandiosity Gap between their fantasies and reality. It is a threat torepparttar 126214 precarious balance of their personality structures ("false" and invented) and treated by them as a menace.

Narcissists forever shiftrepparttar 126215 blame, passrepparttar 126216 buck, and engage in cognitive dissonance. They "pathologize"repparttar 126217 other, foster feelings of guilt and shame in her, demean, debase and humiliate in order to preserve their sense of superiority.

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