Intellectual Property Law

Written by Joe Regan

Intellectual Property Law can be quite confusing at times. Copyrights, trademarks and patents all have a role in protecting your hard earned content and knowing their role is halfrepparttar battle.

Intellectual property in itself refers torepparttar 119257 creations ofrepparttar 119258 mind, including such things as: artistic works, literary works, inventions, names, images, symbols, and designs used in commerce. In other words,repparttar 119259 intellect that isrepparttar 119260 possession of an organization or an individual is considered intellectual property.

Intellectual property is divided into two categories, copyrights and industrial property.

Copyrights giverepparttar 119261 authors of an exclusive work, exclusive rights to that work for a limited amount of time. Copyrights cover such literary and artistic works as novels, poems, plays, films, songs and other musical works, artistic works (drawings, paintings, sculptures and photographs) and architectural designs. Copyrights, which must be renewed periodically, allowrepparttar 119262 creators of a piece of work,repparttar 119263 opportunity to benefit from that piece of work.

Industrial property includes patents, trademarks, industrial designs and geographic indications of source.

Patents giverepparttar 119264 inventors of a new product, a certain (limited) amount of time in which he/she may prevent others from making, selling or usingrepparttar 119265 invention without authorization.

Instrument Proficiency Checks Under The Revised Instrument Practical Test Standards

Written by Greg Reigel

In April, 2004,repparttar FAA updated and revisedrepparttar 119256 Practical Test Standards (“PTS”) forrepparttar 119257 Instrument Rating. The new standards went into effect October 1, 2004. Of particular interest to instrument flight instructors (“CFII’s”) and pilots holding instrument ratings is a substantial change inrepparttar 119258 requirements for administering an Instrument Proficiency Check (“IPC”).

Prior to October 1, 2004, a CFII had discretion regarding what PTS tasks he or she could require for an instrument rated pilot to demonstrate instrument proficiency. That discretion allowed a CFII to be flexible in order to accommodate/address a pilot's strengths/weaknesses, as well asrepparttar 119259 pilot’s aircraft, instrumentation and intended missions. That is,repparttar 119260 CFII was allowed to decide what tasksrepparttar 119261 pilot needed to accomplish in order to showrepparttar 119262 CFII thatrepparttar 119263 pilot could competently operate an aircraft solely with reference torepparttar 119264 instruments.

Although this discretion presentedrepparttar 119265 opportunity for a CFII to conduct an IPC with minimal demonstration of ability byrepparttar 119266 pilot, most CFII’s required pilots to demonstrate sufficient skills and competence to show that they could safely fly in instrument meteorological conditions (“IMC”). After all, no responsible CFII wanted to berepparttar 119267 last IPC sign-off in a pilot’s logbook ifrepparttar 119268 pilot was later in an accident or incident: Too many questions to answer and potential liability forrepparttar 119269 CFII.

However,repparttar 119270 revised PTS no longer giverepparttar 119271 CFII discretion in how an IPC is to be conducted orrepparttar 119272 tasks to be performed. The current PTS now require completion of specific tasks including holds, unusual attitudes, intercepting nav-aids and dme-arcs, precision, non-precision and circling approaches, partial- panel and review of instruments and aircraft equipment.

Unfortunately,repparttar 119273 removal ofrepparttar 119274 CFII’s discretion seems to convert what used to be a learning experience tailored to a pilot and his or her needs into what is more closely akin to an actual check-ride. Underrepparttar 119275 prior PTS, a student and instructor could discuss and determinerepparttar 119276 appropriate and/or necessary tasks to ensure thatrepparttar 119277 pilot could demonstraterepparttar 119278 necessary competency to pass an IPC. This allowed a pilot to userepparttar 119279 IPC as a learning tool by agreeing withrepparttar 119280 instructor to review or practice specific tasks on whichrepparttar 119281 pilot may have felt he or she needed additional practice.

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