Insecticides & Fungicides/Spreader-stickers, Wetting Agents: Getting the most out of Your Sprays

Written by Thomas Ogren

Spreader-stickers, Wetting Agents: Gettingrepparttar most out of Your Sprays

Thomas Ogren

Spreader-stickers or if you prefer, sticker-spreaders, are agents we can add to garden sprays to make them more effective. These additives are commonly used in commercial horticulture and in agriculture, but for some reason are as yet relatively unknown to most gardeners. Sticker-spreaders can be made of many different components, organic or inorganic. Oftenrepparttar 113432 actual ingredients in a particular brand of sticker-spreader will be kept secret, as a proprietary formulation known only withinrepparttar 113433 company producing it. Some brands use silicone-based surfactants, oils, emulsifiers and buffering agents, while others may use odd combinations of things like fish oil and fatty acid soaps. Several are made entirely from some sort of emulsified soybean oil. Actually, common dish soap will act as a sticker-spreader, it just won’t be as effective. To be totally technically correct here, sticker-spreader is a combination of two adjuvants. Adjuvants are materials added to spray mixtures to increaserepparttar 113434 effectiveness ofrepparttar 113435 main active ingredient. If we want to be completely correct with our terminology here, we probably ought to note too that spreaders are adjuvant surfactants. Surfactants are adjuvants that reduce surface tensions of solutions, helping them spread and cover leaves more effectively. Stickers are adjuvants that aid inrepparttar 113436 attachment to a surface. The water-soluble wax product often used to spray Christmas trees to keep them turgid, Wiltpruff, is also sometimes used as a sticker-spreader. I recently did some comparison spraying of roses in my own garden. I was sprayingrepparttar 113437 roses with a homemade combination to keeprepparttar 113438 darn deer from eating them intorepparttar 113439 ground. With both batches of spray I used, per gallon of water, two raw eggs, four cloves of garlic, and a cup of skim milk. I blended allrepparttar 113440 ingredients in a blender before putting them inrepparttar 113441 sprayer. I sprayed two different sections of roses. Inrepparttar 113442 first section I usedrepparttar 113443 above mix, withrepparttar 113444 addition of 6 tablespoons of dish soap. Inrepparttar 113445 second section of roses I usedrepparttar 113446 same mix but used two tablespoons of a commercial grade sticker-spreader.

Can your sundial really tell the time?

Written by Hugh Harris-Evans

"I am a sundial, and I make a botch Of what is done far better by a watch"

So wrote Hilaire Belloc, but is this really fair? Sundials arerepparttar earliest known form of time-keeping having been used for some five thousand years. The Greek historian Herodotus stated that sundials were first used byrepparttar 113431 Chaldeans and Sumerians in Babylonia which was part ofrepparttar 113432 modern Iraq. They used vertical rods on their buildings and notedrepparttar 113433 position ofrepparttar 113434 shadow to recordrepparttar 113435 passing ofrepparttar 113436 hours. The concept was developed byrepparttar 113437 Greeks and Romans who constructed various different shapes of dial to enable them to tellrepparttar 113438 time andrepparttar 113439 season ofrepparttar 113440 year. Usually these were bowl-shaped dials with vertical or horizontal gnomons (shadow-casters) and hour lines marked inrepparttar 113441 hollow ofrepparttar 113442 bowl. Overrepparttar 113443 years more elaborate designs were produced untilrepparttar 113444 advent of accurate clocks whenrepparttar 113445 function ofrepparttar 113446 sundial became more decorative than as a reliable means of tellingrepparttar 113447 time.

The question is often asked "Can a sundial really tellrepparttar 113448 correct time?" to which you will receiverepparttar 113449 Alice in Wonderland reply that it depends upon what you mean by "the correct time". Our clocks and watches work onrepparttar 113450 basis of there being exactly twenty-four hours between one day andrepparttar 113451 next but, because ofrepparttar 113452 eliptical nature ofrepparttar 113453 earth's orbit aroundrepparttar 113454 sun,repparttar 113455 time shown onrepparttar 113456 sundial will vary according torepparttar 113457 seasons. In February byrepparttar 113458 clockrepparttar 113459 sun is almost fifteen minutes slow, whereas duringrepparttar 113460 spring and summer months it gains and loses between four and six minutes in two cycles. Atrepparttar 113461 other extreme in Novemberrepparttar 113462 sundial appears to be some seventeen minutes fast. In factrepparttar 113463 sundial is accurate on only four days ofrepparttar 113464 year, about April 15, June 14, September 2 and December 25. Some sundials include a table showingrepparttar 113465 deviation from "clock time" according torepparttar 113466 date.

The time indicated byrepparttar 113467 sun will also vary withrepparttar 113468 location ofrepparttar 113469 dial. The sun travels acrossrepparttar 113470 sky atrepparttar 113471 rate of fifteen degrees per hour so every degree of longditude represents a difference of four minutes fromrepparttar 113472 standard meridian forrepparttar 113473 region. The angle ofrepparttar 113474 gnomon also depends onrepparttar 113475 situation, so to set up your sundial correctly you need to know bothrepparttar 113476 latitude and longditude of its location. Forrepparttar 113477 United States andrepparttar 113478 United Kingdom this site can providerepparttar 113479 information. The gnomon should be set atrepparttar 113480 angle in degrees which is equal torepparttar 113481 latitude of your location. The sundial can then be fixed withrepparttar 113482 gnomon pointing torepparttar 113483 Pole Star. There are various ways of achieving this,repparttar 113484 easiest of which, is to use a compass adjusted forrepparttar 113485 magnetic variation. Further details are beyondrepparttar 113486 scope of this article, but for those interested look at this site. If you have read this far you will have discovered that there is a great deal more torepparttar 113487 sundial than a mere item of garden decoration. If this has piqued your interest inrepparttar 113488 subject, then you are not alone. There are Sundial Societies in countries aroundrepparttar 113489 world. The North American Sundial Society has details of its objects and activities on its website.

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