How to Sharpen your tools

Written by James Curran


This article can be found in its totality at

http://www.frostproof.com ips04.htm

The article is as follows:

Why sharpen tools? Most gardeners do not takerepparttar extra time to clean and sharpen their tools mostly because either a. they don't understandrepparttar 116331 importance of it or b. they don't know how. Hopefully this article will help you with both.

The main reason why it is important is that when a pruning tool, like a shear or a lopper, is sharp you get much cleaner cuts which is important torepparttar 116332 healing ofrepparttar 116333 tree or plant. Immediately after making a cut on a plant, it starts to ooze sap or resin. This isrepparttar 116334 plant's natural protection remedy to provide a shield from weather, fungi and insects. When a plant has a jagged cut, as from an unsharp pruner,repparttar 116335 plant has a much harder time healing since there is a larger area exposed to allrepparttar 116336 natural elements.

The second reason why it is important for sharp tools is that it will make your own efforts faster and significantly easier.

How to sharpen tools 1. The first step in sharpening any tool is to make surerepparttar 116337 blades are clean. I usually start by taking my pruning tool and cleaningrepparttar 116338 blade with soap and water to remove dirt and debris. This step, however, will not get rid ofrepparttar 116339 sap and resin from your recent pruning. To removerepparttar 116340 sap you need to diprepparttar 116341 metal ends in a solvent such as kerosene. After I lightly dry them I give them a mild coat of pruner lubrication oil. This lubrication oil is not on a lubricant but will also prevent future rusting. If you are going to sharpen you tools at this time you can putrepparttar 116342 lubrication oil on atrepparttar 116343 end of that process.

2. The next step is determinerepparttar 116344 correct sharpening angle. This is usually about 10 to 15 degrees. I then take my sharpening stone and put a light coating of vegetable oil on it to keep it lubricated. The oil not only keeprepparttar 116345 stone lubricated but helps to carry awayrepparttar 116346 grit while you are sharpening. It is important to periodically to add a little more oil as your sharpen. To maintainrepparttar 116347 correct angle, pressrepparttar 116348 blade againstrepparttar 116349 concave side ofrepparttar 116350 stone while sharpening. The main word of caution here is DON'T PRESS TO HARD! Use several smooth strokes, movingrepparttar 116351 blade in one direction towardrepparttar 116352 tip. For every 10 strokes torepparttar 116353 outer bevel, apply one stroke torepparttar 116354 inner angle.

3. To test whether you have sharpenedrepparttar 116355 blades enough you can performrepparttar 116356 light reflection test. Simply hold uprepparttar 116357 newly sharpened blade to any light source. If you get a reflection offrepparttar 116358 blade edge then you have not sharpened enough. It is important to note, however, that you don't want to sharpenrepparttar 116359 blades too much as that will make them fragile. To do a final test you can go out and testrepparttar 116360 sharpened tool on a size of branch is was designed to cut (i.e. cutting capacity 3/4"). Ifrepparttar 116361 blades pull or catch you need to sharpen some more.

How long will your pet live?

Written by Dawn Jenness


The pet food industry, a billion-dollar, unregulated operation, feeds onrepparttar garbage that otherwise would wind up in landfills or be transformed into fertilizer. The hidden ingredients in a can of commercial pet food may include road kill andrepparttar 116330 rendered remains of cats and dogs. The pet food industry claims that its products constitute a "complete and balanced diet" but, in reality, commercial pet food is unfit for human or animal consumption.

"Vegetable protein",repparttar 116331 mainstay of dry dog foods, includes ground yellow corn, wheat shorts and middlings, soybean meal, rice husks, peanut meal and peanut shells (identified as "cellulose" on pet food labels). These often are little more thanrepparttar 116332 sweepings from milling room floors. Stripped of their oil, germ and bran, these "proteins" are deficient in essential fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidants. "Animal protein" in commercial pet foods can include diseased meat, road kill, contaminated material from slaughterhouses, fecal matter, rendered cats and dogs and poultry feathers. The major source of animal protein comes from dead-stock removal operations that supply so-called "4-D" animals-dead, diseased, dying or disabled-to "receiving plants" for hide, fat and meat removal. The meat (after being doused with charcoal and marked "unfit for human consumption") may then be sold for pet food.

Rendering plants process decomposing animal carcasses, large road kill and euthanized dogs and cats into a dry protein product that is sold torepparttar 116333 pet food industry. One small plant in Quebec, Ontario, renders 10 tons (22,000 pounds) of dogs and cats per week. The Quebec Ministry of Agriculture states that "the fur is not removed from dogs and cats" and that "dead animals are cooked together with viscera, bones and fat at 115 C (235 F) for 20 minutes".

The US Food and Drug Administration's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) is aware ofrepparttar 116334 use of rendered dogs and cats in pet foods, but has stated: "CVM has not acted to specifically prohibitrepparttar 116335 rendering of pets. However, that is not to say thatrepparttar 116336 practice of using this material in pet food is condoned byrepparttar 116337 CVM."

In bothrepparttar 116338 US and Canada,repparttar 116339 pet food industry is virtually self-regulated. Inrepparttar 116340 US,repparttar 116341 Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) sets guidelines and definitions for animal feed, including pet foods. In Canada,repparttar 116342 most prominent control isrepparttar 116343 "Labeling Act", simply requiring product labels to staterepparttar 116344 name and address ofrepparttar 116345 manufacturer,repparttar 116346 weight ofrepparttar 116347 product and whether it is dog or cat food. The Canadian Veterinary Medical Association (CVMA) andrepparttar 116348 Pet Food Association of Canada (PFAC) are voluntary organizations that, forrepparttar 116349 most part, rely onrepparttar 116350 integrity ofrepparttar 116351 companies they certify to assure that product ingredients do not fall below minimum standards.

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