How to Research Absolutely Anything

Written by Stephanie Cage

Have you ever thought about writing non-fiction but been put off byrepparttar amount of research involved? Writing about what you know helps, as you’re likely to haverepparttar 134983 information you need at your fingertips, or at least know where to find it, but if you’re anything like me, you will still need to check up on a detail every so often.

The truth is, research is hard to avoid. Even as a fiction writer, you will still need to check facts once in a while. It might be a historical detail (would your hero have been wearing a top hat or bowler?), a fact about a place or person, or evenrepparttar 134984 lyrics of your heroine’s favourite song.

Sometimes you can avoidrepparttar 134985 problem by being vague. Instead of namingrepparttar 134986 song, say, ‘He was humming that annoying tune again.’ If you don’t know exactly how bigrepparttar 134987 boat was, say, ‘It was aboutrepparttar 134988 length of a swimming pool’. However, do this too often, and you loserepparttar 134989 sense of reality, of a scene coming alive, that comes from a precisely imagined and described story world.

So how do you go about findingrepparttar 134990 information you need to fillrepparttar 134991 gaps in your story or article? As a researcher, there are five main sources of information I turn to, roughly in this order:

1 – Home reference books. Looking things up at home is quick and convenient, and a good encyclopaedia can fill in background information on a huge range of topics. However, it may not containrepparttar 134992 specific information you’re looking for, and sometimes even if it containsrepparttar 134993 answer, it may be hard to find. For example, if you know want to find out more about Ellen MacArthur, it’s great, but it’s not much help if you can’t rememberrepparttar 134994 surname of ‘that woman who sailed aroundrepparttar 134995 world – Ellen someone.’

2 – The Internet The Internet is a great starting point if you can’t rememberrepparttar 134996 exact details of what you’re looking for. Type ‘Ellen’ and ‘aroundrepparttar 134997 world sailing’ into Google andrepparttar 134998 odds are that sooner or laterrepparttar 134999 name ‘MacArthur’ will crop up. It can be useful for tracking down poetry and song lyrics too, because it doesn’t matter if you can’t rememberrepparttar 135000 title or first line – if it’s onrepparttar 135001 Internet, then typing any line into a search engine will help you track it down.

3 - Libraries If you can’t find what you need at home, in most casesrepparttar 135002 next stop will be your local library. They will have a wider range of reference books, as well as other subject-related books. For example, if you need to add colour to your novel about a woman sailor, you could look out for interesting details in a biography of Ellen MacArthur. If you’re really new to a subject, start from scratch with a child’s reference book. They’re often surprisingly informative as well as having lots of helpful illustrations. If your local library fails, you may have to resort to a larger library further afield – main copyright libraries have every book you could wish for, although it’s worth calling in advance to check thatrepparttar 135003 book you’re looking for is immediately available.

Awesome Endings

Written by Lea Schizas

Awesome Ending

Bungee jumping, sky diving, secret mission, Indy 500: how do these events compare torepparttar art of fiction writing? Each one brings to its ‘doer’ an element of anticipation, exhilaration, unfamiliarity, and adventure. A pure adrenaline rush. And as a writer of fiction, this isrepparttar 134965 plateau you want your reader to experience.

Straying fromrepparttar 134966 anticipated ending to a twist makes for good reading, pleasingrepparttar 134967 editor, and upping your chance of getting accepted. But be wary. Your twist should conform alongrepparttar 134968 lines ofrepparttar 134969 story you have crafted thus far. Not an easy task to accomplish, but plausible.

For example: fifteen-year-old John stolerepparttar 134970 answers to his exam from his teacher’s desk. Throughoutrepparttar 134971 storyline, John has been portrayed as a ‘bully’ but every so oftenrepparttar 134972 writer has offered either flashbacks or little inconspicuous hints into John’s childhood. The reader assumes that John will either get away with it, or get caught and suspended. The author has grippedrepparttar 134973 reader into continuingrepparttar 134974 book to see where this will end up. Here comesrepparttar 134975 twist.

Because of these rare flashback insights, we’ve seen another side to John that, although subtle, it’s still there. So when John ends up placingrepparttar 134976 answers back with no one beingrepparttar 134977 wiser,repparttar 134978 reader is stunned, surprised, but content with this twist ending because it has been subliminally build intorepparttar 134979 plot.

Ifrepparttar 134980 writer’s portrayal of John had been exclusively ‘bullish’, mean-spirited, unfriendly throughout thenrepparttar 134981 reader’s reaction would have been stunned, surprised and obviously, left cheated with an ending that holds no basis withrepparttar 134982 rest ofrepparttar 134983 storyline.

This is called character reversal, whenrepparttar 134984 character reacts different than whatrepparttar 134985 reader expected. And to pull it off, you must have planted subtle seeds alongrepparttar 134986 way.

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