How does oil & dirt get washed away with soap?

Written by Dr. George Grant

We use soap each day in our lives inrepparttar form of detergents, shampoo, shower crème, hand soap or bar soap. We are so used to using soap that we rarely stop and wonder how this wonderful compound manages to help us clean ourselves day after day. Have you ever thought about what would happen if there were no soap? How else can we ridrepparttar 149047 dirt off our bodies or our clothes?

Most ofrepparttar 149048 time, dirt comes inrepparttar 149049 form of grease or oil which sticks itself onto surfaces and will not come off if only water is just used. This is because oil and grease are non-polar, which means thatrepparttar 149050 oil molecules are not charged and therefore are not attracted to polar substances such as water. Because of this, oil tends to stick with its own molecules or other non-polar substances.

Onrepparttar 149051 other hand, water is a polar substance which is made up of one positive and one negative charge, and therefore is a fragmented substance. With this, water dissolves salt easily because salt is made up of charged ions in whichrepparttar 149052 positive charge will be attracted torepparttar 149053 negative ions in water.

Due torepparttar 149054 fact ofrepparttar 149055 nature of oil and water, you will see that oil will not dissolve in water but remain clustered onrepparttar 149056 surface. Also, oil and grease will stick onto plates and cutlery during cleaning, and no amount of water can completely remove it. That’s when soap comes in. All it takes is just one layer of soap with water andrepparttar 149057 oil will be removed. How does this happen?

Well, soap is a unique substance of potassium fatty acid salts, produced through a chemical reaction called saponification. Its molecules are made up of a hydrocarbon chain, which is non-polar, as well as a carboxylate molecule which is polar. Therefore,repparttar 149058 non-polar part ofrepparttar 149059 soap –repparttar 149060 hydrocarbon chain, is not attracted to water but to oil (lipophilic). Onrepparttar 149061 other hand,repparttar 149062 carboxylate molecules which are negatively charged, are attracted torepparttar 149063 positively charged water molecules (hydrophilic).

The fertilization process and implications of test tube babies

Written by Dr.Richard Waller

Throughrepparttar wonders of science, infertile couples who were previously unable to bear children, due to reasons such as blocked fallopian tubes, low sperm count, low egg quantities or advanced age ofrepparttar 148938 mother, are now able to conceive through in-vitro fertilization. The results are babies known as test-tube babies which are technically conceived outsiderepparttar 148939 womb.

In a natural scenario,repparttar 148940 conception of a baby occurs whenrepparttar 148941 ovum, travels fromrepparttar 148942 ovaries, throughrepparttar 148943 fallopian tube to be fertilized byrepparttar 148944 sperm ofrepparttar 148945 father during sexual intercourse. From this point on,repparttar 148946 fertilized egg will travel down towardsrepparttar 148947 uterus and duringrepparttar 148948 process division of cells will occur until it reaches its final destination atrepparttar 148949 wall ofrepparttar 148950 uterus. However, inrepparttar 148951 cases of block fallopian tubes,repparttar 148952 eggs are unable to travel fromrepparttar 148953 ovaries torepparttar 148954 uterus and conception cannot happen.

Developed inrepparttar 148955 United Kingdom by Dr. Patrick Steptoe and Dr. Robert Edwards,repparttar 148956 process of in-vitro fertilization involves removing eggs fromrepparttar 148957 ovaries ofrepparttar 148958 mother and combining them withrepparttar 148959 sperm ofrepparttar 148960 father in a lab environment. The fertilized egg is then placed back intorepparttar 148961 uterus ofrepparttar 148962 mother after 3 to 5 days and will remain there to grow till birth. Because ofrepparttar 148963 low success pregnancy rate of this procedure, a few eggs are placed inrepparttar 148964 uterus to increaserepparttar 148965 odds of success. With this process, statistics have shown thatrepparttar 148966 rates of multiple births have increased where 24 percent ofrepparttar 148967 in-vitro fertilization births have produced twins.

The first test-tube baby, Louise Brown, who was born onrepparttar 148968 25th July 1978, marked hope for other infertile couples to have a baby through this procedure. However, many others were concerned aboutrepparttar 148969 ethical issues surround this. One major area of concern wasrepparttar 148970 fact that asrepparttar 148971 egg is located outsiderepparttar 148972 womb for a few days whilerepparttar 148973 cells multiplied before being put back insiderepparttar 148974 uterus,repparttar 148975 health issues affecting this baby is unknown. Indeed, research has been shown that test-tube babies have a higher chance of birth defects and low birth weight, and researchers still have not been able to determinerepparttar 148976 reason for this.

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