Hello Houston

Written by Charles Douglas Wehner

"Hello Houston, we have a problem".

"We copy you, Apollo 55. What SEEMS to berepparttar problem"?

"It'srepparttar 146323 arithmetic. Everything looks so different from up here. As Charles Douglas Wehner pointed out, at http://wehner.org/agrav , our speed is added to that of anything that is coming towards us, or orbitting towards us. It is taken away fromrepparttar 146324 speed of anything moving or orbitting inrepparttar 146325 same direction as us".

"We copy you, Apollo 55. That's no problem. If A plus B equals C, then C minus A is B. If E is twice F, then F is half E. Just reverse all equations, and imagine you are in Houston".

"We copy you, Houston - butrepparttar 146326 linear relativity of Ernst Mach does not work at these speeds and distances. We have plenty of food, oxygen and fuel. However, we find thatrepparttar 146327 "Mighty Child" anomaly Wehner described in "Spin-Orbit Duality" applies to us (see http://www.goarticles.com/cgi-bin/showa.cgi?C=12988 )".

"We copy you, Apollo 55 - please explainrepparttar 146328 problem".

"A child has allrepparttar 146329 energy it needs to spin a top, but would need to be almighty to putrepparttar 146330 universe into orbit around that top - so spin-orbit duality breaks down. Einstein discovered that he needed to distort time or space, or something - just to make his equations balance. We are forced into non-linear (Einsteinian) Relativity, and cannot makerepparttar 146331 equations balance. Either we have more than enough energy to get home, or vastly too little. Nor, from up here, can we matchrepparttar 146332 data you have sent us".

The Bill Clinton Neuron And The Sweat Neuron

Written by Abraham Thomas

Inrepparttar world of science, there is excited speculation about recent discoveries of individual neurons inrepparttar 144965 brain, with striking capabilities. They had discovered a neuron, which fired on recognition of just one special face. Scientists spotted this using microelectrodes, which could identifyrepparttar 144966 firing of a single neuron. Buried deep inrepparttar 144967 amygdala of a female patient, they discoveredrepparttar 144968 so-called “Bill Clinton” neuron. The cell fired on recognizing three very different images ofrepparttar 144969 former President; a line drawing of a laughing Clinton; a formal painting depicting him; and a photograph of him in a crowd. The cell remained mute whenrepparttar 144970 patient viewed images of other politicians and celebrities. In other patients, scientists found similar cells that responded selectively to actors, including Jennifer Anniston, Brad Pitt, and Halle Berry.

Most neuroscientists had believed that specific nerve cells handled individual pixels as on a television screen. Suddenly, a single neuron could identify Clinton. Could there be a “thinking neuron?” Scientists felt it impossible for an individual cell to be clever enough to make sense of a concept as subtle as Clinton. Evenrepparttar 144971 world’s fastest supercomputers would have difficulty performing that pattern-recognition feat. So, how could a single neuron ever learn to recognize a President? Such speculation onrepparttar 144972 nature of neurons continued ceaselessly in scientific circles. This was surprising. How could scientists remain blind torepparttar 144973 significance ofrepparttar 144974 Nobel Prize awarded in 2004 to Lynda Buck forrepparttar 144975 discovery ofrepparttar 144976 recognition processes inrepparttar 144977 olfactory system?

There, Buck had already reported a “Sweat” neuron and an “Orange” neuron. Those experiments concernedrepparttar 144978 recognition of smells. She reported that octanol smelled like oranges and octanoic acid, like sweat, even though their chemical structures were similar. Yet, different neurons fired for each smell. Was this just more evidence of thinking neurons? Yet, Buck had a simple explanation. The olfactory system recognized different combinations of firing for different odors. First, a single receptor recognized multiple odorants. Second, a single odorant was recognized by multiple receptors. And third, different odorants were recognized by different combinations of receptors. It was this combinatorial coding system, which enabledrepparttar 144979 olfactory system to recognize millions of odors. So, there were Sweat neurons, Rose neurons and Orange neurons. And millions more. Could it be that Clinton and Berry neurons were no different?

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