Free Jazz: The Jazz Revolution of the '60s

Written by Robert Levin

Revised and expanded here, this piece originated as an “oral essay” forrepparttar Cosmoetica Omniversica interview series on

More or less officially unveiled withrepparttar 132422 first New York appearance ofrepparttar 132423 Ornette Coleman Quartet atrepparttar 132424 Five Spot Café inrepparttar 132425 fall of 1959, free jazz (or new black music, space music, new thing, anti-jazz or abstract jazz as it would variously be labeled), gave new dimension torepparttar 132426 perennial "where'srepparttar 132427 melody?" complaint against jazz.

For most ofrepparttar 132428 uninitiated, whatrepparttar 132429 Coleman group presented on its opening night was in fact sheer cacophony.

Four musicians (a saxophonist, trumpeter, bassist and drummer) abruptly began to play—with an apoplectic intensity and at a bone-rattling volume—four simultaneous solos that had no perceptible shared references or point of departure. Even unto themselvesrepparttar 132430 solos, torepparttar 132431 extent that they could be isolated as such inrepparttar 132432 density of sound that was being produced, were without any fixed melodic or rhythmic structure. Consisting, by turns, of short, jagged bursts and long meandering lines unmindful of bar divisions and chorus measures they were, moreover, laced with squeaks, squeals, bleats and strident honks. A number ended and another began—or was itrepparttar 132433 same one again? How were you to tell? No. No way this madness could possibly have a method.

But umbilically connected torepparttar 132434 emergent black cultural nationalism movement,repparttar 132435 madness did indeed have a method. The avowed objective ofrepparttar 132436 dramatic innovations that musicians like Ornette, Cecil Taylor—and, in their footsteps, Sunny Murray, Andrew Cyrille, Archie Shepp, Bill Dixon, Albert Ayler, Jimmy Lyons, Eric Dolphy and (the later period) John Coltrane, among hundreds of others—initiated and practiced fromrepparttar 132437 late '50s intorepparttar 132438 early '70s, was to restore black music to its original identity as a medium of spiritual utility. When these men abandoned an adherence to chord progressions,repparttar 132439 32-bar song form,repparttar 132440 fixed beat andrepparttar 132441 soloist/accompanist format, and began to employ, among other things, simultaneous improvisations, fragmented tempos and voice-like timbres, they were very deliberately replacing, with ancient black methodologies, those Western concepts and systems that had, by their lights, worked to subvert and reduce black music in America to either a pop music or (for many of them no less a corruption of what black music was supposed to be) an art form.

Alan Silva, a one-time bassist with Cecil Taylor and thenrepparttar 132442 leader of his own thirteen-piece orchestra, maderepparttar 132443 point in an interview I did with him for Rolling Stone.

"I don't want to make music that sounds nice," Silva told me. "I want to make music that opensrepparttar 132444 possibility of real spiritual communion between people. There's a flow coming from every individual, a continuous flow of energy coming fromrepparttar 132445 subconscious level. The idea is to tap that energy throughrepparttar 132446 medium of improvised sound. I do supplyrepparttar 132447 band with notes, motifs and sounds to give it a lift-off point. I also directrepparttar 132448 band, though not in any conventional way—like I might suddenly say 'CHORD!' But essentially I'm dealing with improvisation asrepparttar 132449 prime force, notrepparttar 132450 tune. The thing is, if you put thirteen musicians together and they all play at once, eventually a cohesion, an order, will be reached, and it will be on a transcendent plane."

(I commented inrepparttar 132451 interview that "Silva says his band wants to commune withrepparttar 132452 spirit world and you aren't sure that it doesn't. With thirteen musicians soloing atrepparttar 132453 same time, at extraordinary decibel levels, astonishingly rapid speeds and with complete emotional abandon for more than an hour,repparttar 132454 band arrives not only at moments of excruciating beauty, but at sounds that rising in ecstatic rushes and waves and becoming almost visible inrepparttar 132455 mesmerizing intensity, weight and force of their vibrations, do for sure seem to be flushing weird, spectral things fromrepparttar 132456 walls, fromrepparttar 132457 ceiling, from your head.")

Of course not all of these musicians shared Silva's position entirely. Some sawrepparttar 132458 music as an intimidating political weapon inrepparttar 132459 battle for civil rights and exploited it as such. Others, like Taylor, did and quite emphatically, regard themselves as artists. For Taylor, a pianist and composer who took what he needed not just from Ellington and Monk, but from Stravinsky, Ives and Bartok, it wasn't about jettisoning Western influences on jazz, but about absorbing them into a specifically black esthetic.

Forrepparttar 132460 most part, however, disparities amongrepparttar 132461 younger musicians ofrepparttar 132462 period amounted to dialects ofrepparttar 132463 same language. All of them sharedrepparttar 132464 "new black consciousness"—a new pride in being black—and their reconstruction of jazz, their purging of its Western elements, or their assertion of black authority over those elements, was, to one degree or another, intended to revive and reinstaterepparttar 132465 music's first purpose.

Internet Dating – It’s Not For Geeks

Written by Sara Blackmoore

Six months ago an old school friend and I were chatting over coffee, puttingrepparttar world to rights as women do. She was bemoaning her lack of success in meetingrepparttar 132420 “right sort” of men. I asked her if she had tried using an internet dating service, andrepparttar 132421 look of horror that spread across her face gaverepparttar 132422 instant answer – of course not! Internet dating, she informed me, was forrepparttar 132423 sad, desperate, geeky or freaky.

Sadly this type of response is typical of people from all walks of life. Why sadly? Because those who instantly dismiss such services are missing out on a great opportunity.

The traditional argument for not usingrepparttar 132424 internet to meet someone is that it is not natural. So what is natural? Where have people traditionally met their husbands, wives, lovers, and friends? Statistically, overrepparttar 132425 past 50 yearsrepparttar 132426 most common place for meeting ones spouse has beenrepparttar 132427 workplace. This is hardly surprising givenrepparttar 132428 ever increasing amounts of time most people are finding themselves working. Other common meeting places include bars, nightclubs, and parties, and some lucky few meet their lifetime partner early in life at college or university. However,repparttar 132429 workplace remains number one for long term relationships.

The reason for this is simple; lasting long term relationships are usually born out of robust friendships, and strong friendships form over time. Spend eight hours a day five days a week withrepparttar 132430 same people and you will get to know them very well. It is not uncommon inrepparttar 132431 modern world to spend more time with your colleagues than with your family, an unfortunate but true fact of life.

The increasing amounts of time we as a society are spending working is leaving less time to spend in social environments outside ofrepparttar 132432 office, which means less opportunity to meet new people. So if you don’t meet someone at work, where else is there? Enterrepparttar 132433 dating agency.

Dating agencies are not a new idea, they have been around a very long time. The internet has simply served as a new medium for bringing people together in a tried and tested way that agencies have used for years. However, it offers some unique advantages for those seeking a partner. Firstly it has loweredrepparttar 132434 cost of running a dating service, and that means agency dating has been opened up to a much wider audience. Secondly, it has broken down geographical barriers in a way that off-line agencies could never hope to. This is an important point because not everyone is looking for their future husband or wife on their doorstep. Indeed not everyone is looking for a future husband or wife;repparttar 132435 explosion in internet dating has made it easier than ever to find new friends and correspondents acrossrepparttar 132436 globe.

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