Fitness Testing Irrationality

Written by Brian D. Johnston


You may publish this article in your newsletter, on your web site, or other publications, so long asrepparttar articleís content is not altered andrepparttar 142735 resource box is included. Add byline and active link. Notification ofrepparttar 142736 use of this article is appreciated, but not required. Total word count included resource box is 1886.

*** *** FITNESS TESTING IRRATIONALITY The purpose of fitness testing is to determinerepparttar 142737 function and health of an individual and an appropriate measure of exercise demands at which an individual can begin. Although this test usually is implemented prior to beginning an exercise program, it can be used as an intermittent measurement tool, to determine progress. Fitness testing comprisesrepparttar 142738 following:

HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE This phase addresses an individualís health status/history. The questionnaire is an important aspect ofrepparttar 142739 test since health problems must be addressed and brought torepparttar 142740 forefront. Moreover, it is important to haverepparttar 142741 waiver signed to protect an instructor legally inrepparttar 142742 event of an unforeseen and imperceptible mishap.

The remainder ofrepparttar 142743 test, described below, holds little validity as to a personís overall function and health andrepparttar 142744 results should be taken with some reservation. Before I explain each aspect, consider that if a room in a house were to be measured, to put in a new carpet or hardwood flooring,repparttar 142745 entire area would be measured with a tool designed forrepparttar 142746 task, such as a measuring tape. One part ofrepparttar 142747 floor would not be measured andrepparttar 142748 remaining dimensions guessed. Nor would a person measure with his or her foot length then tell a flooring retailer thatrepparttar 142749 living room is twenty paces by thirty paces. This would be pointless since any individualís foot length is not accepted universally or an accurate method of measurement Ė unlikerepparttar 142750 yard, meter, or actual foot (twelve inches). With that in mind, we then can considerrepparttar 142751 following steps in conducting a fitness test.

BODY COMPOSITION The percentage of body fat is measured, usually with fat calipers, since they are inexpensive compared to other body composition tools. The more deconditioned (fat) a person, orrepparttar 142752 better conditioned (muscle and leanness) a person,repparttar 142753 less accurate body fat percentage readings become if calipers are used asrepparttar 142754 tool of measurement. Other methods also lose their accuracy with very muscular and obese individuals:repparttar 142755 extent being relative torepparttar 142756 device in question.

Calipers are acceptable for determining millimeter (mm) fat thickness, in order to establish data for comparison purposes, butrepparttar 142757 readings, together withrepparttar 142758 mathematical formulae provided to suggest "x" percentage of fat and muscle, should be avoided in regard to body composition constitution. (About eight years ago, I had a very experienced caliper tester, who taught and certified instructors in fitness testing, tell me that my body fat was close to 20% [overweight] although my abdominals were quite visible andrepparttar 142759 remainder of my body fairly lean and muscular.)

Moreover, mm thickness can vary significantly, and this depends onrepparttar 142760 skill ofrepparttar 142761 person who performsrepparttar 142762 test and how and whererepparttar 142763 tissue to be measured is pinched. Even experienced caliper users must be quick in application and take a single reading since continual prodding and pulling ofrepparttar 142764 skin altersrepparttar 142765 architecture and pliability ofrepparttar 142766 tissues, thereby encouraging different results.

Nor will caliper body fat measurement account for areas not measured. Some individuals, for example, have large buttocks and carry an excessive amount of fat in that area. I tend to carry it inrepparttar 142767 lower back and buttocks more than in other areas, a distribution that is not a typical male characteristic. Many men have leaner buttocks and carry more fat inrepparttar 142768 front ofrepparttar 142769 abdominals. Yet,repparttar 142770 buttocks are not measured with a caliper reading. Hence, how can a mathematical equation be created so that allowances are made for fat buttocks that may or may not exist and in any measure?

MUSCULAR STRENGTH & ENDURANCE With this test, trainees do not prove their ability onrepparttar 142771 leg press or bench press, although doing so would not disclose much information. Rather, strength is determined with a hand-held dynamometer. In other words,repparttar 142772 strength of a personís grip supposedly indicates how strong a person is overall. Therefore, if a person has a relatively weak grip, compared torepparttar 142773 average population, and regardless ofrepparttar 142774 strength inrepparttar 142775 remaining muscle groups, that person will score below average. The extent of an individualís grip is irrelevant to what can be achieved or what has been achieved as governed byrepparttar 142776 function(s) ofrepparttar 142777 remainder ofrepparttar 142778 body and its health status.

Although I regularly perform grip exercises, my grip is barely above average for my sex and age group, even after more than two decades of regular exercise and grasping heavy barbells. Atrepparttar 142779 time of my fitness test (mid 1990s), I was one standard deviation below normal in grip strength, although I could leg press several hundred pounds and easily chin my body weight for at least fifteen repetitions. My father, who was a practicing plumber atrepparttar 142780 time, used his grip daily and scored almost three standard deviations above normal, yet I could out-lift him inrepparttar 142781 gym and was more fit overall. This example demonstrates that grip strength is not an indication of strength or function in general.

The muscular endurance test I experienced was measured through a maximum count (uncontrolled, crank-them-out-as-fast-as-you-can) push-ups and sit-ups or stomach crunches. After twenty push-ups, my upper body was heavily blood engorged and I could not continue. After eighteen stomach crunches, my abdominals also were fatigued significantly. Again, I scored below normal since I was used to a short tension time while under intense strain when I exercised, including abdominal exercises. I did not practice high repetition push-ups or stomach crunches, and this reflectedrepparttar 142782 SAID Principle in my results. Although I had good pectoral and abdominal development, and I could lift heavy weights relative to most other people, apparently I was not in very good condition as far as muscular endurance was concerned.

Understanding Weight Loss

Written by Ken Shorey


A pound of fat represents approximately 3500 calories of stored energy. In order to lose a pound of fat, you have to use 3500 more calories than you consume. Although this seems like a simple formula remember that your body is a thinking organism designed to protect itself.

If you were to try to reduce your intake byrepparttar entire 3500 calories in one day, your body would register some type of alarm and think that there is a state of emergency. Immediately your metabolism would slow down and no weight loss would be achieved.

It's better to spread your weight loss out over a period of a week, so that you aim to reduce your caloric intake by 3500 to 7000 calories per week, resulting in weight loss of one to two pounds per week. It's generally not recommended to try to lose more than two pounds in a week. Attempting to do so may cause health risks, and on top of this you're unlikely to be successful.

Inrepparttar 142676 example of attempting to lose two pounds per week, you can use a basic method of calorie counting to help you accomplish your goal. To do so, you need to figure out how many calories a person of your age, sex, and weight usually needs in a day, subtract 500 from that amount, and follow a diet that provides you with that many calories.

Cont'd on page 2 ==>
 
ImproveHomeLife.com © 2005
Terms of Use