Feeding Your Pet Stingray - The Essentials of Maintaining a Varied Diet

Written by Brendon Turner


Stingrays will eat a wide variety of foods. Maintaining a varied diet is extremely important in captive animals, as monocultural diets incur a risk of nutritional deficiencies. Stingrays are very active, and should be fed at least once a day, preferably twice or even three times daily. The daily diet can be varied in order to create some environmental enrichment as well as balanced nutrition forrepparttar rays.

First Foods

First foods for newly acquired rays should be blackworms or tubifex worms. These foods seem to berepparttar 145707 most readily accepted, and are small enough to be inadvertently ingested either by mouth or throughrepparttar 145708 spiracle, thereby givingrepparttar 145709 ray an opportunity to taste these possibly unfamiliar foods by chance. Foods that have been used for very small specimens, such asrepparttar 145710 teacup rays, are small insect larvae such as mosquito larvae, small shrimp known as ghost shrimp or glass shrimp, live adult brine shrimp, and blackworms. Chitinous foods such as shrimp provide less nutritional value than do soft-bodied foods, and so should not be used as sole food items.

The best way to be certain that your new stingray is feeding is to watchrepparttar 145711 spiracles asrepparttar 145712 ray passes over food onrepparttar 145713 bottom ofrepparttar 145714 tank. If it is eating, you will seerepparttar 145715 spiracles opening and closing rapidly, or fluttering, asrepparttar 145716 food is ingested and water is passed fromrepparttar 145717 mouth and outrepparttar 145718 spiracles. Once you observe a newly acquired ray readily feeding on black-worms or redworms introduce finely chopped night crawlers in small quantities. Once stingrays recognize these as food, most will readily eat them. Later, experiment with other types of food.

Types of Food

Live Foods

Feed live foods, including blackworms or tubifex worms, in quantities adequate to allow a small amount to be left inrepparttar 145719 tank sorepparttar 145720 rays can browse later. However, when cleaningrepparttar 145721 substrate, note whether a significant amount of living worms is present; blackworms and tubifex worms will colonizerepparttar 145722 substrate if not eaten and add torepparttar 145723 nitrogenous waste production inrepparttar 145724 aquarium.

Nonlive, Nonaquatic Foods

Chopped earthworms, redworms, or night crawlers and any nonlive, nonaquatic foods should be fed in smaller quantities to prevent any overlooked food from decomposing inrepparttar 145725 tank. Keep in mind that stingrays have relatively small mouths-a 10-inch (25-cm) ray may have a mouth that is 1/2 to 3/4 inch (13 to 19 mm) wide, so chopped food items must be small enough to be eaten easily. If a ray ingests a piece of food and repeatedly spits it out and ingests it again, this usually indicates thatrepparttar 145726 particle is too large. Some ray species, such as antenna rays, have extremely small mouths relative to their size.

Once acclimated, rays often develop techniques for eating larger pieces of food; for example, newly imported rays may have difficulty consuming even small chopped pieces of night crawlers. Eventually, however, they learn to eat an entire worm by sucking it into their oral cavity without chewing. Newly acquired rays also often ignore feeder goldfish but they quickly learn to chase down and consume feeders, even learning where they hide inrepparttar 145727 tank.

Commercially Prepared Foods

Stingrays may learn to eat other unfamiliar foods such as brine shrimp, pellet foods, or other commercially prepared foods. While there is probably no harm in offering these foods to rays, it is best to use fresh, live, or frozen foods asrepparttar 145728 dietary staple. Although stingrays often do not initially accept frozen or other nonliving foods, they may soon learn to eat these foods after they have been acclimated. A benefit of frozen foods is that they are less likely than live foods to introduce diseases or parasites.

A Tragic and Brutal End for our American Horses.

Written by Stephen Murphy


Each time I write or pass along this information, my whole intention is to save at least one more horse. Alone I know I cannot save them all, although I whole heartedly want to, but to reach one more person's eyes, heart and conscious and they respond in kind then I suppose that is just as good. I purposely want these articles to strike a nerve and openrepparttar American publicís eyes torepparttar 145443 senseless practice of horse slaughter. Our American horses of all types are being slaughtered as would any domesticated food animal. Our Founding Fathers designatedrepparttar 145444 horse a "favored" animal which means they are not bred or raised for food, not eaten in our culture. Why? Becauserepparttar 145445 horse is part of American heritage, having played a major role in our historical growth and development. Extensive independent polling shows that voters think it is illegal to slaughter a horse for human consumption; however when informed that it is not, 88%-93% think that it should be. Now taking that in consideration here arerepparttar 145446 alarming facts: Over 3 million American recreational horses have been secretly purchased and slaughtered forrepparttar 145447 foreign markets inrepparttar 145448 last two decades. And because ofrepparttar 145449 lack of disclosure onrepparttar 145450 part ofrepparttar 145451 agents forrepparttar 145452 foreign owned horsemeat industry, people's horses can and have been stolen and their pets purchased under false pretenses. This practice has contributed to crime and consumer fraud. Inrepparttar 145453 United States there are currently two horse slaughter plants in operation, both foreign-owned, both in Texas and a third in Illinois. In addition torepparttar 145454 horses killed inrepparttar 145455 two US-based plants, thousands more are transported under deplorable conditions across our borders into Canada and Mexico to be slaughtered. Horses are often transported for more than 24 hours without rest, water, or food, while unprotected from weather extremes in thin metal-walled trailers. Sick and/or injured horses frequently are forced onto double-deck trailers that were designed for short-necked animals including cattle and sheep. Once atrepparttar 145456 slaughterhouse,repparttar 145457 suffering and abuse continue unabated. Often, horses are left on tightly packed double-deck trailers for long periods of time while a few are forcibly moved off. Callous workers, using long, thick fiberglass rods, poke and beatrepparttar 145458 horses' faces, necks, backs, and legs as they are shoved throughrepparttar 145459 facility intorepparttar 145460 kill box. Due to extreme overcrowding, abuse, deafening sounds, andrepparttar 145461 smell of blood,repparttar 145462 horses exhibit fear typical of "flight" behavior pacing in prance-like movements with their ears pinned back against their heads and eyes wide open. The horses are then herded into shoots which lead torepparttar 145463 stun box. Horses have a very keen since of smell so while they are being driven down this shute they can smellrepparttar 145464 death in front of them. They are shaking and very frightened and knowrepparttar 145465 fate that awaits them. This is a cruel fate for a pet and any horse that has been be-friended by a human and they should not ever end up with this type of fate. What you do have to realize from this time on is that there are very devious buyers out there looking to buy any horse they can get their hands on. They very willing to lie by sayingrepparttar 145466 horse they purchase from you will be taken to a great place to live out it's days with constant good care. These people are only driven by GREED and have BLOOD on their hands from

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