Fair Use

Written by Richard Lowe

Important: This article contains opinions and information about copyright law. Keep in mind that I am not a lawyer and have not been a lawyer in any past life that I am aware of. If you have specific questions about copyright law you should contactrepparttar appropriate legal resources.

Think about it for a minute. If no on could ever make a copy of anything withoutrepparttar 131980 copyright owner's permission, then commentary, critical articles, news reporting, research papers and education would be much more difficult. It would be much more difficult, for example, to write a book report without including a quote or two fromrepparttar 131981 author. It would be even more difficult to write a thesis, term paper or research article without including quotes from dozens or even hundreds of sources.

Let's say you were writing an article on copyright and you needed to illustrate a point. You could write your own words (and you should), but you would have a much more powerful article if you included some quotes from reputable sources. It makes it appear that you have done your research and gives you additional authority that you might not otherwise be granted.

In fact, it would be downright silly to require people to get permission to make quotes of this nature. Imagine how difficult it would be if you were writing a term paper which included references from a hundred difficult sources. You would have to track down each author and ask permission. Many timesrepparttar 131982 author has given uprepparttar 131983 copyright to some other entity, so you would have to do further research on who really ownsrepparttar 131984 copyrights. This could conceivably require more time than writingrepparttar 131985 paper itself!

To enable you to include quotes of other author's works, an exemption torepparttar 131986 United States copyright law was created. This allows for "commentary, parody, news reporting, research and education about copyrighted works withoutrepparttar 131987 permission ofrepparttar 131988 author (from "10 Big Myths about copyright explained", just to illustrate how this works).

So how does this work? Well, some ofrepparttar 131989 more important considerations are:

- Your intent in copyingrepparttar 131990 work - How much ofrepparttar 131991 work was copied - As well as any damage torepparttar 131992 commercial value ofrepparttar 131993 work.

So, for example, if you were writing an article aboutrepparttar 131994 quality ofrepparttar 131995 movie "The Mummy Returns", you could use brief quotes fromrepparttar 131996 film to illustrate your point. However, if you includedrepparttar 131997 entire script on your web site, well, that would be a copyright violation.

In general, it is a good idea to include a reference torepparttar 131998 original source material. This serves many purposes, one ofrepparttar 131999 most important being simple common courtesy (in fact, I often like to letrepparttar 132000 author know I have borrowed some of his words). It also makes it clear that you have invoked fair use, and it gives your readers a source for additional information. Just as important, you improve your own credibility by showing you have done your research and you are not afraid to allow others to see how you came to your conclusions.

To further illustrate,repparttar 132001 following would most likely be covered under fair use:

- Including brief quotes from published papers for your research papers.

- Writing an article on your web site aboutrepparttar 132002 Simpsons and including a WAV file quoting Homer. Perhaps something like "Homer's 'Doh' has become famousrepparttar 132003 world over", with a hyperlink to a WAV file forrepparttar 132004 "Doh".

- Criticizing a book and including a few quotes to illustrate your point.

- Criticizing a book and including quotes from other critics to reinforce your point.

The following would most likely be considered copyright violations:

- Including, without permission, several pages of material from another research paper.

Rules To Problem Solving

Written by Richard Lowe

I've been working inrepparttar world of computers for 23 years, and I've learned a lot about problems during that time. I've found a few rules which, if followed, make it easier to find, understand, correct and verify problems.

Rule #1: Don't assume you understandrepparttar 131979 problem. This is one ofrepparttar 131980 classic mistakes of problem solving - you think you understand what's going on, but you didn't look deep enough or get enough information to really get it. Before starting to solve any problem, be sure you spend some time and be absolutely sure you understand exactly what's going in.

Rule #2: Don't assume thatrepparttar 131981 person who reportedrepparttar 131982 problem understandsrepparttar 131983 problem either. Inrepparttar 131984 computer field, I've found that users will report problems in many different, often bizarre ways. Sometimes they will describe it in such a manner that it appears to make sense, but actually what they are describing has no relation torepparttar 131985 problem at all. Remember, most people do not understand computers andrepparttar 131986 related technology at all, so they tend to piece together descriptions based upon what they have heard, what they think they know and what people have told them.

Rule #3: Duplicaterepparttar 131987 problem. Always, always, always duplicate any problem before you start working on finding a solution. Why? See Rule #4. In addition, if you can make a problem occur again, there is a much better change that you really do understand what's going on (rule #1).

Rule #4: You cannot know you have solved a problem unless you followed Rule #3. The only way to be sure that a problem is solved is to fix it, then exactly replicate what happened. The sequence is simple: duplicaterepparttar 131988 problem, fixrepparttar 131989 problem, then try and duplicate it again. If you've exactly replicatedrepparttar 131990 issue, then you can be reasonably sure you've fixed it.

Rule #5: Don't assume someone else understandsrepparttar 131991 problem. If you need to delegaterepparttar 131992 problem to another person, or if you are receiving instructions from another person to solverepparttar 131993 problem yourself, do not ever assume they understand what they are talking about. Always follow Rule #3 to be sure YOU understandrepparttar 131994 problem. Do not take anyone else's word for it. If you delegaterepparttar 131995 problem, make surerepparttar 131996 person you give it to follows Rule #3.

Rule #6: Don't assume you have just one problem. Sometimes things are more complicated than they seem. It's never a good idea to assume that there is just one problem to be solved. Throughoutrepparttar 131997 entire problem solving process, keep your eyes open and find any additional problems that you may see.

Rule #7: Don't assume there is more than one problem. Also, don't makerepparttar 131998 assumption there is more than one problem either. How do you follow rules #6 and #7? Just base your conclusions upon what exists, not upon your assumptions or what others have told you.

Rule #8: Don't assume there is a problem at all. Just because someone reports a problem does not mean there is actually a real problem. I remember when I got very upset because my car was making a strange noise. I brought it torepparttar 131999 mechanic and had him spend hours checking my car to fixrepparttar 132000 noise. As it turned out,repparttar 132001 noise was normal and was not a problem. Hours wasted when there was no problem at all. Ifrepparttar 132002 mechanic had followed Rules #2, #3 and #8, I would have been out ofrepparttar 132003 shop in a few minutes.

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