Eye of Horus

Written by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga

Horus, represented asrepparttar falcon-headed god, was an important god in Egyptian legend. The symbol representing his eye, Eye of Horus, was a powerful symbol used to protect from evil. Pronounced "udjat" byrepparttar 109444 Egyptians,repparttar 109445 Eye of Horus represents a human eye withrepparttar 109446 cheek markings of a falcon. The ancient Egyptian Eye of Horus or wedjat ('Whole One') is a powerful symbol of protection, and is also considered to confer wisdom, health and prosperity.The ancient Egyptians consideredrepparttar 109447 eye of horus as a representative of eternal renewal ofrepparttar 109448 kingdom from Pharaoh to pharaoh. The ancient Egyptians believed that this symbol has a very powerful and magical effect on restoring harmony torepparttar 109449 unstabilized world and restoring unrightful things. According torepparttar 109450 old myth,repparttar 109451 rivalling god Seth tore Horus' eye out. Seth was his uncle, who contended with him forrepparttar 109452 Egyptian throne after he had killed and dismembered his father, Osiris. Thot,repparttar 109453 wise moon god andrepparttar 109454 patron ofrepparttar 109455 sciences andrepparttar 109456 art of writing, put it patiently back in order and healed it. As an ambiguous symbol, it describesrepparttar 109457 status of regained soundness. Inrepparttar 109458 field of astronomy it isrepparttar 109459 moon symbol absolute and refers torepparttar 109460 increasing completion ofrepparttar 109461 moon disk;repparttar 109462 Eye of Horus symbol was inspired byrepparttar 109463 "Eye of God" and "solar falcon" that are manifested during total solar eclipses; Inrepparttar 109464 most different sizes and degrees of preciousness of its materials, it served as an amulet worn aroundrepparttar 109465 neck or as a graphic motif for beautiful jewels; it decoratedrepparttar 109466 lunettes of coffins and sarcophagi; it was part of a suspicious picture mysteries inrepparttar 109467 ornament of receptacles or other personal objects.

Ancient Egyptian Boats

Written by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga

Egyptians pioneeredrepparttar development of river craft and there were many different types built for various uses. Agricultural produce, troops, cattle, stone and funeral processions were all carried onrepparttar 109443 Nile and its canals. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds. Papyrus is different from paper because papyrus is a laminated material made from thinly cut strips fromrepparttar 109444 stalk of Cyprus Papyrus plant. It was believed to be first used about 4000 B.C., and became Egypt's major exports. There were many types of boats that Egyptians used. Papyrus boats were used by Egyptians. Papyrus boats were built with bundles of papyrus. They were steered with oars. Sailboats were used a lot by Egyptians. Sailboats were steered by two oars. Sailboats usually only had one square sail. Funeral boats carried dead people down river. They were used to carryrepparttar 109445 dead acrossrepparttar 109446 Nile River. The funeral boats were very elaborate. The earliest record of a ship under sail is depicted on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200BC. These Egyptian boats were made of either native woods or conifers from Lebanon. Papyrus boats were useful for hunting or crossing short stretches of water, using a paddle or a pole. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds, and were lashed together into a long thin hull form inrepparttar 109447 style of a slight crescent. This liftedrepparttar 109448 ends out ofrepparttar 109449 water. The bundle was made as wide as possible for stability, and an extra bundle was put on top so thatrepparttar 109450 cargo and crew were kept reasonable dry. ( Reed vessels like these of Ancient Egypt are till in use in Peru today.) Cedar was very important torepparttar 109451 Egyptians as a boat building material. These boats were built of relatively short blocks of timber, and were braced and secured with rope lashings very much inrepparttar 109452 same style that was used in papyrus boats. This wooden model ofrepparttar 109453 funery boats found at Thebes, with its two pointed ends rising out ofrepparttar 109454 water, is a good example. Allrepparttar 109455 cities and towns were easily accessible by boat, andrepparttar 109456 Nile providedrepparttar 109457 perfect means of transport, since it was cheap and quick. The necessary water power was provided byrepparttar 109458 current andrepparttar 109459 wind. Officials went up and downrepparttar 109460 Nile with stone for building projects or grain forrepparttar 109461 kings stores, and merchants carried wares for sale. Every corner of civilized Egypt could be easily could be easily reached and Egyptian traders sailed to ports inrepparttar 109462 Eastern Mediterranean andrepparttar 109463 Red Sea.

Funeral boats were very elegant and tookrepparttar 109464 pharaoh torepparttar 109465 grave. The funeral boats were buried withrepparttar 109466 pharaoh. The Egyptians only used chisels to cut boats from wood. It took them a very long time to make a boat. Khufuís boat was 141 feet long and didnot even have a nail in it. The Egyptians had a hard time making and sailing boats. There were papyrus and sailing boats too.

Building and sailing forrepparttar 109467 Egyptians wasn't always easy. The Egyptians had a hard time sailing a boat. Rowing a boat was a hard job becauserepparttar 109468 boats were so big and heavy. It was also a hard job becauserepparttar 109469 oarsrepparttar 109470 Egyptians steered with were very heavy. Egyptians had a hard time building boats too. Making a boat was a very long and hard job becauserepparttar 109471 boats were big. Boats were hard to make because allrepparttar 109472 Egyptians had to cutrepparttar 109473 wood with was a chisel. Sailing was easy too. Sails just carriedrepparttar 109474 Egyptians which ever wayrepparttar 109475 wind was blowing. Which is uprepparttar 109476 Nile River, againstrepparttar 109477 current. Inrepparttar 109478 pyramid of King Khufu,repparttar 109479 worlds oldest boat was found. It's 1200 pieces were found stored unassembled, with matching hieratic signs, (which were a written version of hieroglyphics). These hieratic signs indicated to which quarter ofrepparttar 109480 boatrepparttar 109481 parts belonged. Khufu's barge measured 150 feet from long beam to stern. Different theories arose and torepparttar 109482 intended use ofrepparttar 109483 boat. Was it for Khufu's use inrepparttar 109484 afterlife? Or as some believe , was it part ofrepparttar 109485 funeral cortege , which may have carried his body from Memphis to Giza. vThe boat's 1,224 separate components included cedarwood planking and oars, ropes of halfa grass, wooden dowels and battens, and copper staples. Its near-perfect preservation allowed conservators to reconstructrepparttar 109486 144-foot-long craft, which is now housed in a white museum built overrepparttar 109487 pit where it was found. Modern ropes were used to lash it together, but its timbers are 95 percent original. The Abydos ships. In 1991 inrepparttar 109488 desert nearrepparttar 109489 temple of Khentyamentiu, archaeologists uncoveredrepparttar 109490 remains of 14 ships dating back torepparttar 109491 early first dynasty (2950-2775 BC), possibly associated with King Aha,repparttar 109492 first ruler of that dynasty. These 75 foot long ships are buried side by side and have wooden hulls, rough stone boulders which were used as anchors, and "sewn" wooden planks. Also found within their desert graves were remains ofrepparttar 109493 woven straps that joinedrepparttar 109494 planks, as well as reed bundles that were used to seal seams between planks. The Abydos ships haverepparttar 109495 honor of beingrepparttar 109496 world’s oldest planked boats. The ancient Egyptians were creating ships with technological skills far beyond their time, well beforerepparttar 109497 invention ofrepparttar 109498 wheel. Egyptologists suspect that simple light rafts made from bundled papyrus reeds may have been made by hunter-gatherers who moved torepparttar 109499 Nile Valley duringrepparttar 109500 Upper Paleolithic period; of course, no specimens remain today. However, there is evidence ofrepparttar 109501 presence of boats inrepparttar 109502 Naqada II culture, which immediately precededrepparttar 109503 dynastic period. Archaeologists have unearthed red painted pottery with designs that include boat motifs as important symbols, and some interpretations stressrepparttar 109504 boats were used in a religious or ritual capacity. Further evidence forrepparttar 109505 early use of boats lies in tomb reliefs (ship building scenes were amongrepparttar 109506 most popular motifs in tombs), paintings, and model boats dating from predynastic times throughrepparttar 109507 New Kingdom. Papyrus rafts appeared to gain a somewhat sacred significance as far back asrepparttar 109508 first dynasty because of their association withrepparttar 109509 sun god. The earliest depictions ofrepparttar 109510 sun god show him travelling on a reed float made of bound papyrus, a portrayal so ancient that it predated Egyptian knowledge of wooden ships. It is because of this connection withrepparttar 109511 sun god thatrepparttar 109512 papyrus raft gained its religious significance, and even though it was used for more practical purposes in Egyptian civilization,repparttar 109513 sacred and royal association stuck.

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