Evolution of matterWritten by Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova
© 2003 Vadim Smolyanov and Valentina Smolyanova
Translated from Russian. We shall be glad to receive your remarks on stylistics, grammar, and content.
Chapter I. Evolution of lifeless matter
We more likely fortunately than unfortunately are in world where there is a time-space and a matter where a duality, variety and constant changes exist. But how to manage to describe World or its any phenomenon if you being in it? The most interesting phenomenon known to a science is Great explosion, a birth of universe which was about 15-20 billion years ago. What had become reason of it? The condition of universe before birth cannot be transferred by words means. It is follows of known ancient texts concerning creation and essence of our world (the Bible, Vedic and Dao). This condition is described as containing All and Nothing simultaneously. Ancient texts force us to disconnect thinking logic and to trust in supersensual perception. But a problem, we have no supersensual perception. So we shall try to create model of development of a matter with help of empirical data, existing theories and logic, but we shall take position of ancient doctrines as entry condition: "All in Nothing, Nothing in All". Is lawful to conclude on it basis that explosion reason was occurrence of Unity (point). Occurrence of Unity created occurrence of Variety potential (infinity). Unity and Variety as total difference has made explosion. The aspiration from Unity to Variety has automatically given birth to opposite aspiration from Variety to Unity. These two aspirations have created a matter, space-time, all processes and phenomena around of us and inside us. Difference of Unity and Variety, a point and infinity has given birth to space-time. Internal aspiration of superelementary particles to Unity and an external pulse to Variety have forced its to space overcoming and to participating in irreversible processes of uniting and disconnecting , that has given birth to time-line (an one-orientation from past to future) and a matter. After era of Great explosion which last very short time interval was finished an era of Great association was begun with duration no more than t=10 in degree -35s. During this period there was a first phase transition of a matter (phase transition is a change of a condition of a matter, for example, transformation of water into steam). Superelementary particles and superelementary antiparticles have appeared in this era. Here there was a global copying of Unity and Variety on internal elements of system as difference between of superelementary particles and superelementary antiparticles and occurrence of gravitation. There were first interactions and first particles focused on interactions (gluons). The following period is marked by next phase transition of matter. It is period of androns formation (protons, neutrons, electrons, etc.). Nuclear forces are basic interaction at this stage which were allocated from gravitation and have found a duality, ability to draw or push away. There were first microsystems where interactions between a few quarks form large variety of elementary particles. It is a first level of complexity known to a science. The aspiration to association at bottom level is appeared in variety at top level. All evolution of a matter proceeded by this principle.
Can sustainable development work? What then will be the impact on business and what will be the impact on the environment?Written by Ronald Munro
First we must define sustainable development. Sustainable is to say that something such as resources or an environmental system can be continued indefinitely without depleting any of material or energy resources required to keep it running.
Development is act, process, or result of developing. Combined together it is an idea brought forward by World Commission on Environment and Development defined by them as a form of development or progress that meets needs of present without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own needs. We must also understand that we are stewards of natural environment and entire planet, and as such we are responsible for what ever happens to any of ecological systems.
Can sustainable development work? This question is more complex than it seems. A simple yes or no answer does not apply to this question due to all of factors involved, which must be considered and evaluated. On one hand you would have to say no. The reasons you would have to say no are, because of opposition you would receive from changing human habits, which have been set for thousands of years. Structure and cost to big businesses and trying to control other countries and governments and economical impacts such major changes could have on any societies economy. It would be impossible for United States to order or police all of other nations and possibly unethical to force them into our ideas and ways of life. This approach has brought United States into many wars. Wars negatively impact many ecological systems by either invading them or totally destroying them. War also destroys and uses vast amounts of natural resources. Yet United Nations, if given more power could possibly perform this task of policing and regulating without resulting in war if all of nations of world joined United Nations, but at what cost. In United States big business is able to influence our politicians. If big business felt this was economically unsound they could afford to spend billions of dollars to fight any legislation that would help this cause or tie up legislation, regulations or mandates in our court systems for years.
Then you have human nature, which resist change especially when it comes to giving up something that makes life easier or that is economical source of their survival. If people survive or derive their income or livelihoods from these natural sources it will be almost impossible to get them to change their habits of destruction to natural environment.
Then you have anti-environmental groups, which work hard to confuse issues or hide facts with extra facts or manipulate data with help of big business and skeptical scientist they hire. All of these factors and more would be reason to say that sustainable development would not work.
The impact on environment would be devastating and our world would eventually be unable to sustain any life and we would have to move or perish with it. When all resource started disappearing businesses would run out of materials and be forced to eventually close forever.