Written by Manoj Dash, BHMS,Ph.D.

General. The word ‘meditation' is by now fairly well known though it conveys different meanings to different people. A dictionary definition1 shows thatrepparttar word is derived fromrepparttar 113235 Latin (meditate-meditari), meaning ‘to survey, observe, contemplate'. In order to understand meditation, this paper presentsrepparttar 113236 Eastern and Western perspectives along withrepparttar 113237 differences and common features. Western perspectives. Interest in meditation began inrepparttar 113238 West withrepparttar 113239 introduction ofrepparttar 113240 technique, Transcendental Meditation which is derived from principles in traditional yoga texts, but has been modified for contemporary practice2. Meditation was described based on physiological studies as a state of ‘alertful rest'3,4, and a strategy to controlrepparttar 113241 level of arousal5. Practitioners of meditation were also interested inrepparttar 113242 possibility of meditation giving them special powers (siddhis), to controlrepparttar 113243 involuntary functions such as body temperature regulation6 or levitation7. No single technique has been described. According to one description8, there are two main forms. The more common form has been called concentrative, involving focusing on a single, unchanging stimulus. The less common form of meditation has been called ‘opening up', in whichrepparttar 113244 practitioner of meditation attempts to broaden awareness to include all forms of sensations. Many scientists believe that despite mystical and spiritual connotations, there is nothing unique aboutrepparttar 113245 meditative state9, which is comparable to resting or relaxing. To understandrepparttar 113246 Western perspective of meditation, it is important to understandrepparttar 113247 historical background of meditation and contemplation inrepparttar 113248 West. This is closely linked with Christian contemplative prayer which dates back torepparttar 113249 4th century (approximately). Atrepparttar 113250 time ofrepparttar 113251 Reformation contemplative prayer declined or disappeared among Protestants, and went into long decline inrepparttar 113252 Catholic countries. Underrepparttar 113253 influence of rationalism,repparttar 113254 mystic direct experience of God became suspect. Byrepparttar 113255 19th centuryrepparttar 113256 contemplative prayer tradition had almost disappeared except amongrepparttar 113257 cloistered Catholic religious orders, and it was marginalized even there. Christian contemplative practice began to revive amongrepparttar 113258 Benedictines and other monastic orders. Duringrepparttar 113259 mid-20th century interest in contemplative practices increased, withrepparttar 113260 most popular writer onrepparttar 113261 subject beingrepparttar 113262 Cistercian monk Thomas Merton10. Lectio divina, translated as sacred reading, was likely brought torepparttar 113263 Western Christian Church from Egypt, Syria, and Palestine inrepparttar 113264 early fifth century. It was recommended for both lay persons and monastics inrepparttar 113265 early Christian centuries. Lectio divina as it is traditionally taught, has four parts or elements:

The Folly of Freebies

Written by Lisa Maliga

We have come to expect things to be given to us. Fromrepparttar student looking forrepparttar 113234 easy “A” torepparttar 113235 consumer searching for that free sample torepparttar 113236 businessperson wanting that 0 down startup cost to their first million.

Trouble is, nothing is ever really free. Nothing worthwhile that is.

Most students earn that high mark by studying hard.

That free samplerepparttar 113237 consumer waits for turns out to be so tiny it wasn’t even worthrepparttar 113238 time to jot down their address.

And that businessperson learns several other numbers usually precede that 0.

As someone who makes bath & body products, I don’t expect to give them away. It took me years of practice to learn how to formulate my products, what colors would enable my soaps to shimmer brightly yet not run or fade. Choosing which fragrances worked well, wouldn’t disappear after a few weeks, and didn’t changerepparttar 113239 color ofrepparttar 113240 product was another factor to consider. Then I had to decide which molds to use, wraprepparttar 113241 soap, and choose a label. I enjoy making my unique products, yet it’s time consuming and costly – as is running any small business.

Yet, I open my email many a morning to find requests for free samples! This rudeness is indicative ofrepparttar 113242 Internet. How many people will walk into a small restaurant and ask for, say, a pancake, to see if they want to order a stack of pancakes? Would a person walk into a garden supply store and try to finagle a package of flower seeds? Unlikely. The anonymity ofrepparttar 113243 ’net does allow people to behave in ways that they wouldn’t in real life. They see a web site, not an actual storefront business. And because that website is a small, family-run enterprise, they attempt to devalue that establishment’s products by asking for freebies.

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