Building Catapults Required Engineering Know How

Written by MCSW Webmaster

When building catapults, armies had to include in their ranks those people capable of employing complicated mathematical formulas and turning them into machines of war.

While their appearance onrepparttar warfare scene dramatically changed tactics for quite literally hundreds of years, it was no easy task for medieval armies to createrepparttar 145483 machines of war they needed to help ensure victory.

The engineers were generally responsible forrepparttar 145484 production or mass production of larger scale weapons onrepparttar 145485 battlefield and leading up battle.

When building catapults on site, engineers had to rely on their own know how andrepparttar 145486 materials available to them, unless of course they transportedrepparttar 145487 wood, sinew and inrepparttar 145488 case of some more complex catapults,repparttar 145489 counterpoises and other materials with them.

Whenrepparttar 145490 idea was to create more simple machines such as ballistas or mangonels,repparttar 145491 task of building catapults was much easier on site than let’s say a trebuchet, which often required extremely heavy materials. Inrepparttar 145492 case ofrepparttar 145493 ballistas and mangonels,repparttar 145494 main ingredients – wood and rope or sinew – were a little easier for engineers to find. The difficulty came in getting these machines together in a big hurry for an impending siege.

Since mass production factories and automation were years inrepparttar 145495 future, medieval armies had to rely on their own ingenuity to pull this off. Engineers who were responsible for building catapults understoodrepparttar 145496 intricacies of design, they knewrepparttar 145497 formulas behindrepparttar 145498 trajectory theory and they were smart enough to create ways to make their designs more mobile and easier to construct with haste.

When building catapults such asrepparttar 145499 ballista and mangonel, engineers only needed to create simple designs. The ballista, for example, required a platform, two wooden arms and tightly wound ropes. These machines could be built in advance and put on platforms for an army to move along with it. The mangonel, too, was similar, and building catapults of this make required only one wooden arm. The drawback to both of these machines, however, was lack of accuracy, although mobility was a plus.

Coffee History

Written by Hilda Maria Sigurdardottir

Coffee - THE Drink of Choice

Did you know coffee isrepparttar most consumed beverage inrepparttar 145482 world. How did coffee get this ranking? What country first figured out coffee was safe for consumption? When wasrepparttar 145483 first drink of coffee prepared? Where didrepparttar 145484 first coffee shop come in being?

There are many questions aboutrepparttar 145485 starting point of drinking coffee. It has been so long ago no one really knows allrepparttar 145486 facts. But, one thing is for sure, coffee isrepparttar 145487 most consumed beverage onrepparttar 145488 planet.

Inrepparttar 145489 Beginning

It looks as ifrepparttar 145490 first trace came out of Abyssinia and was also sporadically inrepparttar 145491 vicinity ofrepparttar 145492 Red Sea around seven hundred AD. Along with these people, other Africans ofrepparttar 145493 same period also have a history of usingrepparttar 145494 coffee berry pulp for more than one occasion like rituals and even for health. Coffee began to get more attention whenrepparttar 145495 Arabs began cultivating it in their peninsulas around eleven hundred AD. It is speculated that trade ships broughtrepparttar 145496 coffee their way. The Arabs started making a drink that became quite popular called gahwa--- meaning to prevent sleep. Roasting and boilingrepparttar 145497 bean was how they made this drink. It became so popular amongrepparttar 145498 Arabs that they made it their signature Arabian wine and it was used a lot during rituals. Afterrepparttar 145499 coffee bean was found to be a great wine and a medicine, someone discovered in Arabia that you could also make a different dark, delicious drink out ofrepparttar 145500 beans. This happened somewhere around twelve hundred AD. After that it didn’t take long and everyone in Arabia was drinking coffee. Everywhere these people traveledrepparttar 145501 coffee went with them. It made its way around to India, North Africa,repparttar 145502 eastern Mediterranean, and was then cultivated to a great extent in Yemen around fourteen hundred AD. Other countries would have gladly welcomed these beans if onlyrepparttar 145503 Arabs had let them. The Arabs killedrepparttar 145504 seed-germ making sure no one else could growrepparttar 145505 coffee if taken elsewhere. Heavily guarding their plants, Yemen is whererepparttar 145506 main source of coffee stayed for several hundred years. Even with their efforts,repparttar 145507 beans were eventually smuggled out by pilgrims and travelers. Coffee Shops Appear Around 1475repparttar 145508 first coffee shop opens in Constantinople called Kiv Han two years after coffee was introduced to Turkey, in 1554 two coffee houses open there. People came pouring in to socialize, listen to music, play games and of course drink coffee. Some often called these places in Turkeyrepparttar 145509 “school ofrepparttar 145510 wise”, because you could learn so much by just visitingrepparttar 145511 coffee house and listening to conversations.

Inrepparttar 145512 sixteen hundreds coffee enters Europe throughrepparttar 145513 port of Venice. The Turkish warriors also broughtrepparttar 145514 drink to Balkans, Spain, and North Africa. Not too much laterrepparttar 145515 first coffee house opens in Italy. There were plenty of people also trying to ban coffee. Such as Khair Beg a governor of Mecca who was executed and Grand Vizir ofrepparttar 145516 Ottoman Empire who successfully closed down many coffee houses in Turkey. Thankfully not everyone thought this way.

Coffee Tips Arrive

Inrepparttar 145517 early sixteen hundreds coffee is presented torepparttar 145518 New World by man named John Smith. Later in that century,repparttar 145519 first coffee house opens in England. Coffee houses or “penny universities” charged a penny for admission and for a cup of coffee. The word "TIPS" (for service) has it’s origin from an English coffee house.

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