Breeding Crayfish Written by William Berg
By William Berg of Sweden, for http://www.aquaticcommunity.com
In text below I shall try to give a short overview of some of basics when breeding crayfish. Particular species may have other behaviours and demands. It should be said that my main experience as an aquarist is with relation to fish, but I shall try to convey what little knowledge I have.
Sexing Crayfish Sexing crayfish isn't always easy. The genital openings are located in different places on body depending on whether it's a male or a female. Males have their genital openings behind/under their posterior pair of legs. Females have their genital openings under third pair of legs counted from posterior. However, many individuals have a male as well as a female genital opening, making sexing much more complicated. But these are always either male or female; usually male but you can't be sure.
Mating and egg carrying In aquariums, spawning is possible any time of year. The male makes a little sperm packet and places it on female's stomach. The female then spawns her eggs, passing them through sperm packet so that eggs get fertilized. It is not uncommon for female to lose a claw during this process. She then places eggs under her tail where they will be kept until they are ready to be released. How long this will be depends on water temperature and species, but it will be at least 4 weeks. A lot of other factors can also affect length of egg carrying period, such as water quality, and food supply and quality. The mother will watch over young for a short time after birth.
Fry The fry are very small when they are born but are fully developed miniature crayfish. Fry are usually detritus feeders, which means that they will feed on any decomposing plant parts and food leftovers they can find while scouring bottom. Vegetable food is preferred and they can be fed boiled lettuce leaves that are left to decay in aquarium. Be aware of water quality. Fry are often very cannibalistic and a large aquarium is required if you want a higher number of fry to survive. Sorting fry for size may help survival rate.
Three Steps to Reduce Holiday Stress for Your KittyWritten by Nancy E. Wigal
You have permission to publish this article electronically or in print, free of charge, as long as bylines are included. A courtesy copy of your publication would be appreciated - send to email@example.com
The annual holidays can be a very stressful time for your cat. This is time of year when that strange tree goes up, bright trinkets are hung (but all your cat hears is ďNo, no, bad kitty!Ē when she tries to explore them), delicious food is prepared (cats need not apply to eat it!), and lots of strange people come tramping into house.
Some cats are in their glory, being in middle of tree decoration tradition, while others react to differences in household by cowering in fear. Plus, if holidays stress you out (raise your hand if they donít; rest of us would like to know your secret), itíll be communicated to kitty, and she may react in kind. And sometimes that fear and stress manifests itself in your cat urinating outside her litter box.
Here are three steps you can do to reduce holiday stress for your cat.
First, keep household changes to a minimum. Think about where you might put Christmas tree. If you put tree in a place that normally belongs to kitty, she could be mighty upset with you. Her reaction could range from hiding for days to urinating underneath tree, if not trying to pull it down. Look for a location that pleases both human and animal population in your house. If thatís not possible, and knowing how cats can be, youíll have to settle for pleasing one or other. My bet is itís whoever pays bills.