Benefits of E-PublishingWritten by Pawan Bangar,Birbals,India
E-PUBLISHING BENEFITS WRITERS AND ARTISTS
Just like all other aspects of life, digital revolution has taken on world of publishing also. With digital publishing coming to fore, publishing world has undergone several fundamental changes. Earlier, publishing was strictly related to paper. However, now paperless publishing or electronic publishing is gaining more prominence. Electronic publishing or ‘e-publishing in which books, journals and magazine are being produced and stored electronically rather than in print. These publications have all qualities of normal publishing like use of colours, graphics, and images and are much convenient also. Electronic publishing empowers all writers in way that no technology has ever done before. Whatever you write--- fiction, poetry, news, how-to books or business documents--- there are exciting things happening that will directly effect how you write and distribute work.
The digital revolution has not just benefit writers alone, but has also revolutionized works of artists, photographers, and other creative person. There are already hundreds of thousands of books and journals published in digital format and their number is rising every day. People are looking at electronic publishing optimistically as it is going to play a pivotal role in modern world of e-commerce. Electronic publications may be produced in a variety of formats, including online, on disk or CD-ROM, as a fire that can be downloaded or transmitted via e-mail or as a file that that can be downloaded to a hand-held electronic reader or a similar device. Many e-publishers offer books in several of these formats. E-publishers produce and distribute new books, which are appearing for first time and many only appear in electronic formats (though some may also be produced in a "books on demand" format as well).
Thus, e-publishing does not include following type of electronic books production: providing electronic text versions of previously published works (such as classic literature, non-copyrighted material, or works that have entered public domain), either online or on CD-ROM, offering on an electronic version of a book that is simultaneously being produced on print. In this case, book would be considered a print publication, and electronic edition would be considered a subsidiary form of publication. Electronic publishing is relatively a new concept, but offer a lot of opportunity to creative person, both for self-employment and regular jobs. The best part of this career is that since, every-thing has to be done on compute; those telecommuting can also pursue this career. These are many publishers, sites, and news wires, who want people to work from their home. The demand for such person in electronic publishing is more in B2V (business to business) portals where there are good revenues also.
Know XMLWritten by Pawan Bangar,Birbals,India
Introduction to XML
XML--- extensible markup Language --- is an exciting development in web technology. It is youngest and most comprehensive of markup Language. (Markup refers to any thing on a document that adds special meaning to a particular text; for example, bold text is a form of markup). This language got name Extensible Markup Language from characteristic that is not restricted to fixed set of tags, as is HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). An XML user creates his own tags according to need. A tag is a sequence of characters in a markup language used to provide information, such as formatting specifications, about a document.
Markup languages are roughly classified into three types:
•Stylistic ----- defines character presentation; for example bold, italics, underline, font etc. •Structural ----- define structure of document as for heading and paragraph. •Semantic ----- informs us about content of data, like giving a title.
SGML (Standardised Generalised Markup Language) is mother of all markup languages and has been in existence since late 1960s. In 1986 it becomes an international standard for defining markup languages. It is used to create other languages, including HTML, which is very popular for its use on web. HTML was made by Tim Berners Lee in 1991. While on one hand SGML is very effective but complex, on other, HTML is very easy but limited to a fixed set of tags. This situation raised need for a language that was as effective as SGML and at same time as simple as HTML. This gap has now been filled by XML.
The development of XML started in 1996, when a team led by Jon Bosak of sun Microsystems began work on a project for remoulding and cutting inessential parts of SGML. They took best of SGML, guided by experience with HTML, and produced something that was no powerful, but much simpler to use. The World Wide Web Consortium also contributes to creation and development of standard for XML. The specifications for XML were laid down in just 26 pages, compared to 500+ page specifications that define SGML.
Although, XML looks like HTML, there is a world of a difference. While HTML specifies what each tag and attribute means and how text define by it will look in a browser, XML uses tag only to delimit pieces of data, and leaves interpretation of data completely to application that reads it. For example, if we see "" in an XML file, it may or may not mean bold (as in HTML) ---- it may mean 'book', ‘bank' or anything else specified by programmer. HTML is only a presentation technology ----it carries no description of content held within its tags ----whereas in XML a programmer can describe text in its own tag. Moreover we can specify importance of a tag in XML so that a hierarchy of data can be represented, which is not possible in HTML.