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Talking about Chinese Pinyin rules, let's start by looking at following different scenarios:
1. Tone Mark Placement
The tone mark is placed over vowel if there is only one vowel, e.g. wo, or on main vowel of a syllable where they are two or three vowels, e.g. hao.
1.1 Syllable with one vowel letter, tone mark is always placed over vowel letter. For examples:
笔 bǐ ( pen ) , 山 shān ( mountain )
车 chē ( car ), 信 xìn ( letter )
1.2 Syllables with two or three vowel letters: If first vowel letter is a medial , e.g. "i", "u", or " ü ", tone mark is placed over vowel letter after medial.
学 xué ( study ) , 贵 guì ( expensive)
小 xiao ( small ) , 略 lüè ( strategy)
1.3 If first vowel letter is not a medial, tone mark is always placed on first vowel letter.
靠 kào ( rely ) , 要 yào ( ask )
好 hǎo ( good ) , 北 běi ( north )
2. Syllables With an Initial
Write down initial and then final with no space between them.
客kè ( guest ) , 桌 zhuō ( desk ) 忙 máng ( busy ) , 飞 fēi ( fly )
If and only if "uo" follows "b", "p", "m", or "f", "u" is dropped, resulting in "bo", "po", "mo", or "fo". If and only if "ü" follows "j", "q", "x", ü is changed to "u", resulting in "ju", "qu" and "xu"
3. Syllables Without an Initial