Ancient Egyptian animals

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

The ancient Egyptians were very fond of animals. They had animals that were sacred, some were pets and other were used in farming. This article is courtesy of home of handmade crafts and educational kits. Sacred Animals. Animals were thought to be sacred torepparttar Egyptians because they believed that when one of their gods or goddesses came down to earth, they would represent themselves as a specific species. The Egyptians thought by honoring them, they would be pleasingrepparttar 109436 god. They also thought that animals shared an afterlife with their humans so it resulted in animals being buried within its family tomb. The animals that were considered especially sacred: ˇcat- The male cat had religious connections with Ra. Kittens were specifically reared for sacrificial/worship uses . ˇcattle- Beef was often used as a sacrificial offering to various deities. ˇscarab beetle- The emblem of a specific goddess,repparttar 109437 scarab beetle was associated withrepparttar 109438 daily birth ofrepparttar 109439 sun, and credited with spontaneous generation of its young. Because of its sacred status, it was widely represented in art. ˇJackel- it was considered a protector of royal tombs from robbers and helped inrepparttar 109440 afterlife journey. Cats and Kittens. One ofrepparttar 109441 most common animal mummies in Egypt wasrepparttar 109442 cat. Cats were believed to representrepparttar 109443 goddess Bastet. Consequently, they were raised in and around temples devoted to Bastet. When they died, they were mummified and buried in huge cemeteries, often in large communal graves. From about 332 B.C. to 30 B.C., animals began to be raised forrepparttar 109444 specific purpose of being turned into mummies. The mummies were sold to people on their way to worship a god and left atrepparttar 109445 temple as offerings. Scientists have uncovered a gruesome fact: many cats died quite premature and unnatural deaths. Two- to four-month-old kittens seemed to have been sacrificed in huge numbers. So many cat mummies were made that researchers can only guess that there were millions of them.

Bastet: Cats are very useful animals in a country that depends on grain. The cat's hunting instincts were honoured byrepparttar 109446 Ancient Egyptians, but so wasrepparttar 109447 cat's gentler side as a warm and loving mother to her kittens. Bastet can be shown as a woman with a feline head. There are disagreements among zoologists as to when these animals first began to live with humans alongrepparttar 109448 Nile, and about which feline becamerepparttar 109449 Egyptian pet. Cats do not appear as household pets duringrepparttar 109450 Age ofrepparttar 109451 Pyramids, though they were very popular animal companions in later times. Cattle were thought to be sacred and beef was often used for offerings torepparttar 109452 gods or goddesses. A bull represented power, aggression, masculinity, fertility; these could berepparttar 109453 attributes of kingship. . The cow's large eyes with long lashes, and her generally quiet demeanor suggested a gentle aspect of feminine beauty. Her gift of milk, which could sustain a human child, became of symbol of love and sustenance. Hathor: Hathor asrepparttar 109454 royal goddess. Her name means 'House of Horus." Her image could takerepparttar 109455 form of a cow, a woman with a cow's head, or a woman wearingrepparttar 109456 horns of a cow. As a motherly cow, she gaverepparttar 109457 king her divine milk, and protected him as a cow protects her calf. She wasrepparttar 109458 goddess of love, music, singing, and dance. She was one ofrepparttar 109459 most important deities inrepparttar 109460 Age ofrepparttar 109461 Pyramids, and her popularity continued torepparttar 109462 end of Egyptian civilization. Inrepparttar 109463 early economy of Egypt, cows were wealth. A herd of cattle was a beautiful sight because it represented wealth inrepparttar 109464 form of food, milk, hides, and work, as oxen pulledrepparttar 109465 ploughs of farmers. Cattle dung was a valuable fertilizer and had many uses in building. The Egyptians admired many qualities in cows, besides their economic benefits. The cow's careful tending of her calf was a model for motherhood. In a time when many women died in childbirth,repparttar 109466 ability of cow's milk to sustain a human baby was deeply appreciated. Cows, like people, love music and will happily listen to a human singing, thus it made sense for Hathor to be goddess of music. The big, gentle brown eyes of cows set a standard for beauty. The Hawk A hawk, who soars high aboverepparttar 109467 world of humans, seeming to expend no energy in his long hours aloft, and who - far seeing, -can swoop in an instant to capture his prey in sharp talons, became a symbol of kingship. Anty: Anty was a hawk god of Upper Egypt. He is shown as a hawk sitting on a crescent moon, or in a boat. He became associated with other hawk-gods, such as Sokar Horus: This god is shown as a falcon, or as a man withrepparttar 109468 head of a falcon. In Egyptian, his name is Her -repparttar 109469 distant one. Likerepparttar 109470 good king who sees everything in his kingdom,repparttar 109471 hawk is noted for his sharp vision. The sudden stoop ofrepparttar 109472 hawk, as he leavesrepparttar 109473 distant sky to attack and capture his prey, is likerepparttar 109474 quick and decisive action of a king in defense of his country. Horus is one ofrepparttar 109475 oldest gods ofrepparttar 109476 Egyptians. Inrepparttar 109477 days when powerful leaders were fighting to make one nation out of smaller settlements,repparttar 109478 early rulers were called Followers of Horus. Onrepparttar 109479 Narmer palette,repparttar 109480 King is shown with a falcon whose one human arm holds a rope that passes throughrepparttar 109481 nose of a defeated rival. The earliest way of distinguishingrepparttar 109482 name of a king fromrepparttar 109483 names of others wasrepparttar 109484 serekh, which was a rectangle representingrepparttar 109485 palace ofrepparttar 109486 king, with a hawk onrepparttar 109487 top. Originally, there were at least two gods called Horus. One isrepparttar 109488 fifth child of Nut and Geb, Horusrepparttar 109489 Elder, andrepparttar 109490 other isrepparttar 109491 son of Isis and Osiris. Over time, their stories and attributes came together. An old story tells of how Osiris, king of Egypt, was murdered by his brother, Seth. Seth was very strong and powerful. He took overrepparttar 109492 country, and ruled well. Isis,repparttar 109493 wife of Osiris, hidrepparttar 109494 child she had born, and raised him in secret. When Horus grew up, he claimed his father's throne. Seth and Horus struggled forrepparttar 109495 kingship, but inrepparttar 109496 end Horus' claim, as son ofrepparttar 109497 previous king, was recognized by a court of allrepparttar 109498 gods, and Horus became king. In Ancient Egypt, each king was Horus. When a king died, Egyptians said thatrepparttar 109499 falcon had flown to Heaven and united withrepparttar 109500 Sun Disk. The next king then became Horus. Likerepparttar 109501 Hawk,repparttar 109502 king was a fighter, a warrior. This is why Horus, when shown as a hawk-headed man, wears an armored breast-plate.


Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

The ancient Egyptians had many great cities. Some of their remains are still present to keep us bewildered on how amazingrepparttar ancient Egyptian civilization was. Some cities however have now vanished, but stillrepparttar 109435 presence of very fine monuments give us a clue of how wonderful these cities were. For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: Many ofrepparttar 109436 egyptian cities were developed when certain pyramids or other large building works were constructed. The capital moved from site to site depending onrepparttar 109437 Pharaoh. The first reason for this isrepparttar 109438 internal peace which existed in Egypt fromrepparttar 109439 earliest times. A second reason directly related torepparttar 109440 first - given urban mobility each successive pharaoh was free to spend his reigning life on earth preparing his tomb forrepparttar 109441 life after death in a different location to that of his predecessor. Egyptian Pharaohs would move to other sites when resistance to change in current capital cities was too great to accomplish their goals. Thebes,repparttar 109442 city ofrepparttar 109443 god Amon, wasrepparttar 109444 capital of Egypt duringrepparttar 109445 period ofrepparttar 109446 Middle and New Kingdoms. Withrepparttar 109447 temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor, andrepparttar 109448 necropolises ofrepparttar 109449 Valley ofrepparttar 109450 Kings andrepparttar 109451 Valley ofrepparttar 109452 Queens, Thebes is a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height. This isrepparttar 109453 great, ancient city of Thebes, capital ofrepparttar 109454 Egyptian empire for almost one thousand years, for Egyptian inhabitants it was Uaset, meaning "the chief town" and Niut, "the City" it was later on called Diospolis Magna. Its present name of Luxor comes fromrepparttar 109455 Arab El Qousour, translation ofrepparttar 109456 Latin "Castra" with whichrepparttar 109457 ancient Romans indicatedrepparttar 109458 city where they had installed two encampments.

Luxor and Karnak now occupy parts of its site. The city developed at a very early date from a number of small villages, particularly one around modern Luxor (then called Epet), but remained relatively obscure untilrepparttar 109459 rise ofrepparttar 109460 Theban family that establishedrepparttar 109461 XI dynasty (c.2134 B.C.). The city rapidly became prominent asrepparttar 109462 royal residence and as a seat ofrepparttar 109463 worship ofrepparttar 109464 god Amon. At Thebes, also, wasrepparttar 109465 necropolis inrepparttar 109466 Valley ofrepparttar 109467 Tombs whererepparttar 109468 kings and nobles were entombed in great splendor in crypts cut intorepparttar 109469 cliffs onrepparttar 109470 Nile's west bank. The city's greatest period was that ofrepparttar 109471 empire, when it served as a reservoir forrepparttar 109472 immense wealth that poured in fromrepparttar 109473 conquered countries. Asrepparttar 109474 empire began to decay andrepparttar 109475 locus of power to shift torepparttar 109476 Nile delta, Thebes went into decline.

Thebes was sacked byrepparttar 109477 Assyrians in 661 B.C.,repparttar 109478 army lead by Assarhaddon, Assurbanipal's army deportedrepparttar 109479 townsmen before turning them into slaves and strippedrepparttar 109480 town of its statues and treasures. Lastly, it was completely razed torepparttar 109481 ground in 84 B.C. by Ptolemy Lathyros torepparttar 109482 extent that duringrepparttar 109483 roman era it was a mass of ruins visited by wayfarers;repparttar 109484 few remaining townsmen settled in what remained ofrepparttar 109485 temples andrepparttar 109486 tombs were reduced to stables. The Romans sacked it in 29 B.C., and by 20 B.C. there was only a few scattered villages seen. The temples and tombs that have survived, includingrepparttar 109487 tombs of Tutankhamen and of Ramses II's sons, are amongrepparttar 109488 most splendid inrepparttar 109489 world.

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