Ancient Egyptian Boats

Written by Dr. Sherin ElKhawaga

Egyptians pioneeredrepparttar development of river craft and there were many different types built for various uses. Agricultural produce, troops, cattle, stone and funeral processions were all carried onrepparttar 109443 Nile and its canals. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds. Papyrus is different from paper because papyrus is a laminated material made from thinly cut strips fromrepparttar 109444 stalk of Cyprus Papyrus plant. It was believed to be first used about 4000 B.C., and became Egypt's major exports. There were many types of boats that Egyptians used. Papyrus boats were used by Egyptians. Papyrus boats were built with bundles of papyrus. They were steered with oars. Sailboats were used a lot by Egyptians. Sailboats were steered by two oars. Sailboats usually only had one square sail. Funeral boats carried dead people down river. They were used to carryrepparttar 109445 dead acrossrepparttar 109446 Nile River. The funeral boats were very elaborate. The earliest record of a ship under sail is depicted on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200BC. These Egyptian boats were made of either native woods or conifers from Lebanon. Papyrus boats were useful for hunting or crossing short stretches of water, using a paddle or a pole. These boats were made of bundles of bound papyrus reeds, and were lashed together into a long thin hull form inrepparttar 109447 style of a slight crescent. This liftedrepparttar 109448 ends out ofrepparttar 109449 water. The bundle was made as wide as possible for stability, and an extra bundle was put on top so thatrepparttar 109450 cargo and crew were kept reasonable dry. ( Reed vessels like these of Ancient Egypt are till in use in Peru today.) Cedar was very important torepparttar 109451 Egyptians as a boat building material. These boats were built of relatively short blocks of timber, and were braced and secured with rope lashings very much inrepparttar 109452 same style that was used in papyrus boats. This wooden model ofrepparttar 109453 funery boats found at Thebes, with its two pointed ends rising out ofrepparttar 109454 water, is a good example. Allrepparttar 109455 cities and towns were easily accessible by boat, andrepparttar 109456 Nile providedrepparttar 109457 perfect means of transport, since it was cheap and quick. The necessary water power was provided byrepparttar 109458 current andrepparttar 109459 wind. Officials went up and downrepparttar 109460 Nile with stone for building projects or grain forrepparttar 109461 kings stores, and merchants carried wares for sale. Every corner of civilized Egypt could be easily could be easily reached and Egyptian traders sailed to ports inrepparttar 109462 Eastern Mediterranean andrepparttar 109463 Red Sea.

Funeral boats were very elegant and tookrepparttar 109464 pharaoh torepparttar 109465 grave. The funeral boats were buried withrepparttar 109466 pharaoh. The Egyptians only used chisels to cut boats from wood. It took them a very long time to make a boat. Khufuís boat was 141 feet long and didnot even have a nail in it. The Egyptians had a hard time making and sailing boats. There were papyrus and sailing boats too.

Building and sailing forrepparttar 109467 Egyptians wasn't always easy. The Egyptians had a hard time sailing a boat. Rowing a boat was a hard job becauserepparttar 109468 boats were so big and heavy. It was also a hard job becauserepparttar 109469 oarsrepparttar 109470 Egyptians steered with were very heavy. Egyptians had a hard time building boats too. Making a boat was a very long and hard job becauserepparttar 109471 boats were big. Boats were hard to make because allrepparttar 109472 Egyptians had to cutrepparttar 109473 wood with was a chisel. Sailing was easy too. Sails just carriedrepparttar 109474 Egyptians which ever wayrepparttar 109475 wind was blowing. Which is uprepparttar 109476 Nile River, againstrepparttar 109477 current. Inrepparttar 109478 pyramid of King Khufu,repparttar 109479 worlds oldest boat was found. It's 1200 pieces were found stored unassembled, with matching hieratic signs, (which were a written version of hieroglyphics). These hieratic signs indicated to which quarter ofrepparttar 109480 boatrepparttar 109481 parts belonged. Khufu's barge measured 150 feet from long beam to stern. Different theories arose and torepparttar 109482 intended use ofrepparttar 109483 boat. Was it for Khufu's use inrepparttar 109484 afterlife? Or as some believe , was it part ofrepparttar 109485 funeral cortege , which may have carried his body from Memphis to Giza. vThe boat's 1,224 separate components included cedarwood planking and oars, ropes of halfa grass, wooden dowels and battens, and copper staples. Its near-perfect preservation allowed conservators to reconstructrepparttar 109486 144-foot-long craft, which is now housed in a white museum built overrepparttar 109487 pit where it was found. Modern ropes were used to lash it together, but its timbers are 95 percent original. The Abydos ships. In 1991 inrepparttar 109488 desert nearrepparttar 109489 temple of Khentyamentiu, archaeologists uncoveredrepparttar 109490 remains of 14 ships dating back torepparttar 109491 early first dynasty (2950-2775 BC), possibly associated with King Aha,repparttar 109492 first ruler of that dynasty. These 75 foot long ships are buried side by side and have wooden hulls, rough stone boulders which were used as anchors, and "sewn" wooden planks. Also found within their desert graves were remains ofrepparttar 109493 woven straps that joinedrepparttar 109494 planks, as well as reed bundles that were used to seal seams between planks. The Abydos ships haverepparttar 109495 honor of beingrepparttar 109496 world’s oldest planked boats. The ancient Egyptians were creating ships with technological skills far beyond their time, well beforerepparttar 109497 invention ofrepparttar 109498 wheel. Egyptologists suspect that simple light rafts made from bundled papyrus reeds may have been made by hunter-gatherers who moved torepparttar 109499 Nile Valley duringrepparttar 109500 Upper Paleolithic period; of course, no specimens remain today. However, there is evidence ofrepparttar 109501 presence of boats inrepparttar 109502 Naqada II culture, which immediately precededrepparttar 109503 dynastic period. Archaeologists have unearthed red painted pottery with designs that include boat motifs as important symbols, and some interpretations stressrepparttar 109504 boats were used in a religious or ritual capacity. Further evidence forrepparttar 109505 early use of boats lies in tomb reliefs (ship building scenes were amongrepparttar 109506 most popular motifs in tombs), paintings, and model boats dating from predynastic times throughrepparttar 109507 New Kingdom. Papyrus rafts appeared to gain a somewhat sacred significance as far back asrepparttar 109508 first dynasty because of their association withrepparttar 109509 sun god. The earliest depictions ofrepparttar 109510 sun god show him travelling on a reed float made of bound papyrus, a portrayal so ancient that it predated Egyptian knowledge of wooden ships. It is because of this connection withrepparttar 109511 sun god thatrepparttar 109512 papyrus raft gained its religious significance, and even though it was used for more practical purposes in Egyptian civilization,repparttar 109513 sacred and royal association stuck.

Tips for Encouraging Children To Write

Written by Deborah Shelton

Publishing Guidelines: Feel free to publishrepparttar following article in its entirety in your ezine, website, or print newsletter. The resource box must be included with an active link. Please send a courtesy copy ofrepparttar 109442 publication in whichrepparttar 109443 article appears to: Word wrap to 60, (507 words)

Tips for Encouraging Children to Write By Deborah Shelton

Want to encourage your child's love of writing? Or inspire one who would rather do anything but write? The answer may be as simple as findingrepparttar 109444 right pen. Just as your child may have had a security blanket or an impossibly dirty teddy bear that she refused to let you kidnap torepparttar 109445 dark recesses ofrepparttar 109446 washing machine, she may need a special writing tool that's all her own.

This doesn't mean that you need to run out and buy a "special" $500 Mont Blanc fountain pen. Perhaps a pen with a case in her signature color would work. Mayberepparttar 109447 ink needs to be justrepparttar 109448 right shade of purple. Take your little one on a stroll throughrepparttar 109449 pen section of an art supply or stationery store and let her choose. Seeing such a wide array of writing supplies may spur interest on its own.

Once you have tracked down a favorite pen, try to do as many creative things as you can think of to get your child to use it.

1. Everyday Writing: Use everyday situations to help children practice their writing. For example,repparttar 109450 next time you write a grocery list, have your child sit next to you and write a list of her favorite foods. Whenever you write thank-you notes, your child can write a miss-you letter to Grandma and Grandpa. Time to pay bills? Have your little one write about a recent dream while you write checks.

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