Amenhotep Kings

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

18TH DYNASTY PHAROAHS- Amenhotep kings

The 18th Dynasty was a period full of powerful Kings and Queens. It starts by King Ahmose who ruled from 1570-1546, one ofrepparttar most outstanding inrepparttar 109437 history of ancient Egypt. His principal achievement was to weakenrepparttar 109438 Hyksos, who had dominated Lower Egypt for some 300 years, by taking Avaris, their citadel inrepparttar 109439 north. He pursued them into southern Palestine and laid siege to Sharuhen for three years.

Amenhotep I (Amenophis) wasrepparttar 109440 son of Ahmose I and his queen Ahmose-Nefertari - and ruled from 1546 to 1526. He undertook military campaigns in Libya and in Nubia (up torepparttar 109441 3rd cataract) using boats onrepparttar 109442 Nile to transport his army, and extendedrepparttar 109443 boundaries of his empire by establishing a vice-royalty in Nubia. On reachingrepparttar 109444 throne, Amenhotep I very quickly had to defend Egypt's borders -repparttar 109445 Libyans had takenrepparttar 109446 opportunity of Ahmose I's death to launch an invasion in Egypt's delta - Amenhotep I led an army torepparttar 109447 Western border and defeatedrepparttar 109448 Libyans and their allies. Next was a rebellion by Nubia, Amenhotep I this time led an army torepparttar 109449 southern border and very quickly restored order. Amenhotep I had an interest in art and architecture and intiated elaborate building projects - such asrepparttar 109450 Karnak temple complex at Karnak . Amenhotep I was alsorepparttar 109451 first pharaoh who separated his mortuary temple and tomb. Amenhotep II ,repparttar 109452 7th king ofrepparttar 109453 18th dynasty, son of Thutmose III, ruled Egypt from 1450 to 1425 BC. He continuedrepparttar 109454 military exploits of his father, particularly in Syria, where he crushed an uprising and demanded oaths of loyalty from local rulers. His mummy was discovered inrepparttar 109455 Valley ofrepparttar 109456 Kings. Amenhotep II was famed atrepparttar 109457 time for his sportsmanship - he was very athletic and had a great love of horses.His greatest feat of sportsmanship wasrepparttar 109458 shooting of copper targets with arrows, while driving a chariot withrepparttar 109459 reigns tied round his waist. Uponrepparttar 109460 death of Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep II inherited a vast empire, it was not something that he intended to lose - any rebellions were severely dealt with and a series of campaigns were made into Syria. Amenhotep III ruled (1417-1379 BC) Egypt atrepparttar 109461 height of its power. His father was Tuthmosis IV by one of that king's chief queens, Mutemwiya. She may have, though mostly in doubt now, beenrepparttar 109462 daughter ofrepparttar 109463 Mitannian king, Artatama. That queen was indeed probably sent to Egypt forrepparttar 109464 purposes of a diplomatic marriage. He was more likely between six and twelve years of age atrepparttar 109465 time of his father's death. Amenhotep III's own chief queen, was not of royal blood, but came from a very substantial family. She was Tiy,repparttar 109466 daughter of Yuya and his wife, Tuya, who owned vast holdings inrepparttar 109467 Delta. Yuya was also a powerful military leader. His extensive diplomatic contacts with other Near Eastern states, especially Mitanni and Babylonia, are revealed inrepparttar 109468 Amarna tablets. Ofrepparttar 109469 great temple he built near Thebes, only two statues,repparttar 109470 so-called colossi of Memnon, remain. Amenhotep's wife Tiye, a woman of humble birth, was prominently associated with him during his long and peaceful reign.We know at least six of his children consisting of two sons and four daughters (other daughters including Henuttaneb and Nebetiah). However, his probable oldest son, Tuthmosis died early leavingrepparttar 109471 future heretic king, Amenhotep IV, otherwise known as Akhenaten, asrepparttar 109472 crown prince. His extensive diplomatic contacts with other Near Eastern states, especially Mitanni and Babylonia, are revealed inrepparttar 109473 Amarna tablets. Ofrepparttar 109474 great temple he built near Thebes, only two statues,repparttar 109475 so-called colossi of Memnon, remain.

Afterrepparttar 109476 military problems seem to have been settled, we find a long period of great building works and high art. It was also a period of lavish luxury atrepparttar 109477 royal court. The wealth needed to accomplish all of this did not come from conquests, but rather from foreign trade and an abundant supply of gold, mostly fromrepparttar 109478 mines inrepparttar 109479 Wadi Hammamat and further south in Nubia. . During his reign, we find a marked increase in Egyptian materials found onrepparttar 109480 Greek mainland. We also find many Egyptian place names, including Mycenae, Phaistos and Knossos first appearing in Egyptian inscriptions We also find letters written between Amenhotep III and his peers in Babylon, Mitanni and Arzawa preserved in cuneiform writing on clay tablets.

Ancient Egyptian animals

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

The ancient Egyptians were very fond of animals. They had animals that were sacred, some were pets and other were used in farming. This article is courtesy of home of handmade crafts and educational kits. Sacred Animals. Animals were thought to be sacred torepparttar Egyptians because they believed that when one of their gods or goddesses came down to earth, they would represent themselves as a specific species. The Egyptians thought by honoring them, they would be pleasingrepparttar 109436 god. They also thought that animals shared an afterlife with their humans so it resulted in animals being buried within its family tomb. The animals that were considered especially sacred: ˇcat- The male cat had religious connections with Ra. Kittens were specifically reared for sacrificial/worship uses . ˇcattle- Beef was often used as a sacrificial offering to various deities. ˇscarab beetle- The emblem of a specific goddess,repparttar 109437 scarab beetle was associated withrepparttar 109438 daily birth ofrepparttar 109439 sun, and credited with spontaneous generation of its young. Because of its sacred status, it was widely represented in art. ˇJackel- it was considered a protector of royal tombs from robbers and helped inrepparttar 109440 afterlife journey. Cats and Kittens. One ofrepparttar 109441 most common animal mummies in Egypt wasrepparttar 109442 cat. Cats were believed to representrepparttar 109443 goddess Bastet. Consequently, they were raised in and around temples devoted to Bastet. When they died, they were mummified and buried in huge cemeteries, often in large communal graves. From about 332 B.C. to 30 B.C., animals began to be raised forrepparttar 109444 specific purpose of being turned into mummies. The mummies were sold to people on their way to worship a god and left atrepparttar 109445 temple as offerings. Scientists have uncovered a gruesome fact: many cats died quite premature and unnatural deaths. Two- to four-month-old kittens seemed to have been sacrificed in huge numbers. So many cat mummies were made that researchers can only guess that there were millions of them.

Bastet: Cats are very useful animals in a country that depends on grain. The cat's hunting instincts were honoured byrepparttar 109446 Ancient Egyptians, but so wasrepparttar 109447 cat's gentler side as a warm and loving mother to her kittens. Bastet can be shown as a woman with a feline head. There are disagreements among zoologists as to when these animals first began to live with humans alongrepparttar 109448 Nile, and about which feline becamerepparttar 109449 Egyptian pet. Cats do not appear as household pets duringrepparttar 109450 Age ofrepparttar 109451 Pyramids, though they were very popular animal companions in later times. Cattle were thought to be sacred and beef was often used for offerings torepparttar 109452 gods or goddesses. A bull represented power, aggression, masculinity, fertility; these could berepparttar 109453 attributes of kingship. . The cow's large eyes with long lashes, and her generally quiet demeanor suggested a gentle aspect of feminine beauty. Her gift of milk, which could sustain a human child, became of symbol of love and sustenance. Hathor: Hathor asrepparttar 109454 royal goddess. Her name means 'House of Horus." Her image could takerepparttar 109455 form of a cow, a woman with a cow's head, or a woman wearingrepparttar 109456 horns of a cow. As a motherly cow, she gaverepparttar 109457 king her divine milk, and protected him as a cow protects her calf. She wasrepparttar 109458 goddess of love, music, singing, and dance. She was one ofrepparttar 109459 most important deities inrepparttar 109460 Age ofrepparttar 109461 Pyramids, and her popularity continued torepparttar 109462 end of Egyptian civilization. Inrepparttar 109463 early economy of Egypt, cows were wealth. A herd of cattle was a beautiful sight because it represented wealth inrepparttar 109464 form of food, milk, hides, and work, as oxen pulledrepparttar 109465 ploughs of farmers. Cattle dung was a valuable fertilizer and had many uses in building. The Egyptians admired many qualities in cows, besides their economic benefits. The cow's careful tending of her calf was a model for motherhood. In a time when many women died in childbirth,repparttar 109466 ability of cow's milk to sustain a human baby was deeply appreciated. Cows, like people, love music and will happily listen to a human singing, thus it made sense for Hathor to be goddess of music. The big, gentle brown eyes of cows set a standard for beauty. The Hawk A hawk, who soars high aboverepparttar 109467 world of humans, seeming to expend no energy in his long hours aloft, and who - far seeing, -can swoop in an instant to capture his prey in sharp talons, became a symbol of kingship. Anty: Anty was a hawk god of Upper Egypt. He is shown as a hawk sitting on a crescent moon, or in a boat. He became associated with other hawk-gods, such as Sokar Horus: This god is shown as a falcon, or as a man withrepparttar 109468 head of a falcon. In Egyptian, his name is Her -repparttar 109469 distant one. Likerepparttar 109470 good king who sees everything in his kingdom,repparttar 109471 hawk is noted for his sharp vision. The sudden stoop ofrepparttar 109472 hawk, as he leavesrepparttar 109473 distant sky to attack and capture his prey, is likerepparttar 109474 quick and decisive action of a king in defense of his country. Horus is one ofrepparttar 109475 oldest gods ofrepparttar 109476 Egyptians. Inrepparttar 109477 days when powerful leaders were fighting to make one nation out of smaller settlements,repparttar 109478 early rulers were called Followers of Horus. Onrepparttar 109479 Narmer palette,repparttar 109480 King is shown with a falcon whose one human arm holds a rope that passes throughrepparttar 109481 nose of a defeated rival. The earliest way of distinguishingrepparttar 109482 name of a king fromrepparttar 109483 names of others wasrepparttar 109484 serekh, which was a rectangle representingrepparttar 109485 palace ofrepparttar 109486 king, with a hawk onrepparttar 109487 top. Originally, there were at least two gods called Horus. One isrepparttar 109488 fifth child of Nut and Geb, Horusrepparttar 109489 Elder, andrepparttar 109490 other isrepparttar 109491 son of Isis and Osiris. Over time, their stories and attributes came together. An old story tells of how Osiris, king of Egypt, was murdered by his brother, Seth. Seth was very strong and powerful. He took overrepparttar 109492 country, and ruled well. Isis,repparttar 109493 wife of Osiris, hidrepparttar 109494 child she had born, and raised him in secret. When Horus grew up, he claimed his father's throne. Seth and Horus struggled forrepparttar 109495 kingship, but inrepparttar 109496 end Horus' claim, as son ofrepparttar 109497 previous king, was recognized by a court of allrepparttar 109498 gods, and Horus became king. In Ancient Egypt, each king was Horus. When a king died, Egyptians said thatrepparttar 109499 falcon had flown to Heaven and united withrepparttar 109500 Sun Disk. The next king then became Horus. Likerepparttar 109501 Hawk,repparttar 109502 king was a fighter, a warrior. This is why Horus, when shown as a hawk-headed man, wears an armored breast-plate.

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