A New Challenge for Teachers: Encouraging Girls in Science, Math and IT Related Studies and Careers©

Written by Valerie Giles

One key challenge educators face isrepparttar importance of encouraging girls to excel in math, science and computer science studies. As technology continues to driverepparttar 144434 world of business, those challenged or generally disinterested in science and math will be left behind. In fact, that's exactly what's happening.

Although women make up approximately 50% ofrepparttar 144435 general work force inrepparttar 144436 U.S., they only represent 9% of workers inrepparttar 144437 science and engineering community. With such a low percentage of female interest,repparttar 144438 government is expecting increased worker shortages throughrepparttar 144439 first decade ofrepparttar 144440 21st century forrepparttar 144441 information technology (IT) industry.

The core worker inrepparttar 144442 IT industry are computer engineers, systems analysts, programmers and computer scientists, which includes database administrators, computer support personnel and all other computer scientists. These are all careers that relate directly back to high school math and science, in addition to computer science studies.

Growth projections by The Bureau of Labor Statistics' indicate thatrepparttar 144443 current graduation rate of those in undergraduate computer, information sciences and technology programs aren't high enough to sustainrepparttar 144444 industry's growth. In addition, they acknowledged thatrepparttar 144445 even greater decrease of women intorepparttar 144446 computer science pipeline will have a profound effect onrepparttar 144447 industry.

These researchers believe thatrepparttar 144448 low representation of women in computer science atrepparttar 144449 undergraduate level is inherited fromrepparttar 144450 secondary school level, where girls do not participate in computer science courses and related activities as much as boys. Although girls are often well represented in earlier computing courses, they shy away from advanced courses. One possible reason for this is because ofrepparttar 144451 increased focus onrepparttar 144452 technical and math course requirements.

This leads us back to math and science studies in elementary and high school, and yet another growing concern withinrepparttar 144453 scientific community.

We currently believe that our nation's future economic prosperity and global competition depends on both scientific progress and our adaptability inrepparttar 144454 fields of science, technology and engineering. As our society shifts from a resource-intensive society to a knowledge-intensive economy, it is critical for all of us to developrepparttar 144455 knowledge and skills needed to contribute to this new community.

With this in mind, knowledge of math and science has now become essential for those pursuing a high-status and well-paid job in our new technologically advanced workforce.

Again,repparttar 144456 science community is concerned that industry growth inrepparttar 144457 early 21st century will far out pace that of graduates. Once again, research has suggested thatrepparttar 144458 root of this problem can be traced back to elementary and high school classrooms.

In going back torepparttar 144459 classroom, a study byrepparttar 144460 National Assessment of Education Progress discovered that girls score belowrepparttar 144461 national mean on all science achievement items and express negatives attitudes towards science. The study acknowledged that societal, education and personal factors all contribute to this funding, but stressed that differences withinrepparttar 144462 science classroom may be one ofrepparttar 144463 biggest contributing factors.

Medieval Siege Weaponry: Castle Walls Beware by MCSW Webmaster

Written by MCSW Webmaster

Medieval siege weaponry was required in any self-respecting war leader’s arsenal in a time when castles with thick defense walls were common and cities surrounded by large, fortified walls were not out of place. With warfare commonplace, it’s little wonderrepparttar variety of medieval siege weaponry is great. After all, what was an attacking band of raiders to do when presented with an “impenetrable” castle wall? Break it down, of course, using one ofrepparttar 144364 many designs of medieval siege weaponry available.

One ofrepparttar 144365 earliest examples of medieval siege weaponry appeared aroundrepparttar 144366 300s AD whenrepparttar 144367 ballista was created. The ballista wasn’trepparttar 144368 most accurate inrepparttar 144369 line of medieval siege weaponry, but it could launch a wave of spears further than human arms could muster. Created using two wooden arms, tightly wound ropes and a cord to assist inrepparttar 144370 hurling of deadly projectiles, this example of medieval siege weaponry used torsion force to launch objects.

The Romans added their own model torepparttar 144371 list of medieval siege weaponry when they createdrepparttar 144372 mangonel. This model called for only one wooden arm. The mangonel, however, had somewhat of a design flaw in that in called for a wooden barrier to be constructed.

A ferocious example of medieval siege weaponry came online inrepparttar 144373 12th century withrepparttar 144374 deploying ofrepparttar 144375 trebuchet.

The trebuchet used a long wooden arm rested on a pivot point, which acted as a large lever. A projectile was placed on one end and warriors in this earlier version ofrepparttar 144376 trebuchet pulled on ropes attached torepparttar 144377 other end to essentially swingrepparttar 144378 arm around and hurlrepparttar 144379 stone.

As far as examples of commonly used medieval siege weaponry are concerned, however, catapults and their sister designs do not holdrepparttar 144380 only billing. Other tools were readily available to would-be conquerors.

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