Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

The ancient Egyptians made their own clothes from what their environment and nature gave them. Egypt has mostly a hot climate thusrepparttar use of clothes reflect material that is lightweight to suit this type of climate. The ancient Egyptians thus used clothes made of linen. For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: The ancient Egyptians both men and women wore linen clothes all throughoutrepparttar 109438 hot weather. The men wore short skirts around their waists called kilts, whilerepparttar 109439 women wore straight fitting dresses with straps on their shoulders. The wealthy men wore pleated kilts, andrepparttar 109440 older men wore a longer kilt. When doing hard work, men wore a loin cloth, and women wore a short skirt. Children usually ran around nude duringrepparttar 109441 summer months. HOW LINEN WAS MADE Linen is a fabric made from plant fibers. The plant fiber comes from flax plants that grow abundantly alongrepparttar 109442 banks ofrepparttar 109443 Nile. The flax plants are plants having small leaves, blue flowers and stems about two feet tall. Flax was pulled out ofrepparttar 109444 ground, not cut. This work was done mostly by men. Half-ripe flax stems maderepparttar 109445 best thread. Ifrepparttar 109446 stems were too ripe, they were used for mats and rope. Flax stems were soaked for several days then fibers were separated. Thenrepparttar 109447 fibers were beaten until soft. The resulting fibers are then spun into thread. The thread is woven into linen fabric from whichrepparttar 109448 garments are made. Most Egyptians wore garments made from linen. This type of fabric is light, airy, and allows freedom of movement, which are important characteristics because ofrepparttar 109449 hot and sometimes humid climate of Egypt. In Ancient Egypt, women were predominately in charge of textile manufacturing and garment making. Garment making was a household chore, but woman also worked for aristocrats in spinning and weaving shops. Every garment fromrepparttar 109450 decorative dresses of queens andrepparttar 109451 elaborate, pleated kilts ofrepparttar 109452 pharaohs torepparttar 109453 simpler kilts and aprons ofrepparttar 109454 common people were handmade by woman. The tools involved in garment making include knives and needles, both of these needed to be molded, shaped or craved. In predynastic times, knives were made out of stone andrepparttar 109455 needles were made from bones. However, duringrepparttar 109456 Old Kingdom, they were both made out of copper. Then, inrepparttar 109457 Middle Kingdom, bronze replacedrepparttar 109458 copper. Knives and needles were molded. Surprisingly,repparttar 109459 eyes of needles were not bored. They were "scratched out with a hard, pointed instrument, probably a stone." With these tools and linen, garments were fashioned to suitrepparttar 109460 needs ofrepparttar 109461 people based on climate andrepparttar 109462 social status. . All men, fromrepparttar 109463 tomb worker torepparttar 109464 pharaoh, wore a kind of kilt or apron that varied in length overrepparttar 109465 years, from halfway aboverepparttar 109466 knee, to halfway below it. It was tied atrepparttar 109467 front, folded in atrepparttar 109468 side, or in two knots atrepparttar 109469 hips. A sleeved, shirt-like garment also became fashionable. Men were always clean-shaven, they used razors made from bronze to shave their beards and heads. Women wore straight, ankle-length dresses that usually had straps that tied atrepparttar 109470 neck or behindrepparttar 109471 shoulders. Some dresses had short sleeves or women wore short robes tied over their shoulders. Later fashions show thatrepparttar 109472 linen was folded in many tiny vertical pleats and fringes were put atrepparttar 109473 edges.

Amenhotep Kings

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

18TH DYNASTY PHAROAHS- Amenhotep kings

The 18th Dynasty was a period full of powerful Kings and Queens. It starts by King Ahmose who ruled from 1570-1546, one ofrepparttar most outstanding inrepparttar 109437 history of ancient Egypt. His principal achievement was to weakenrepparttar 109438 Hyksos, who had dominated Lower Egypt for some 300 years, by taking Avaris, their citadel inrepparttar 109439 north. He pursued them into southern Palestine and laid siege to Sharuhen for three years.

Amenhotep I (Amenophis) wasrepparttar 109440 son of Ahmose I and his queen Ahmose-Nefertari - and ruled from 1546 to 1526. He undertook military campaigns in Libya and in Nubia (up torepparttar 109441 3rd cataract) using boats onrepparttar 109442 Nile to transport his army, and extendedrepparttar 109443 boundaries of his empire by establishing a vice-royalty in Nubia. On reachingrepparttar 109444 throne, Amenhotep I very quickly had to defend Egypt's borders -repparttar 109445 Libyans had takenrepparttar 109446 opportunity of Ahmose I's death to launch an invasion in Egypt's delta - Amenhotep I led an army torepparttar 109447 Western border and defeatedrepparttar 109448 Libyans and their allies. Next was a rebellion by Nubia, Amenhotep I this time led an army torepparttar 109449 southern border and very quickly restored order. Amenhotep I had an interest in art and architecture and intiated elaborate building projects - such asrepparttar 109450 Karnak temple complex at Karnak . Amenhotep I was alsorepparttar 109451 first pharaoh who separated his mortuary temple and tomb. Amenhotep II ,repparttar 109452 7th king ofrepparttar 109453 18th dynasty, son of Thutmose III, ruled Egypt from 1450 to 1425 BC. He continuedrepparttar 109454 military exploits of his father, particularly in Syria, where he crushed an uprising and demanded oaths of loyalty from local rulers. His mummy was discovered inrepparttar 109455 Valley ofrepparttar 109456 Kings. Amenhotep II was famed atrepparttar 109457 time for his sportsmanship - he was very athletic and had a great love of horses.His greatest feat of sportsmanship wasrepparttar 109458 shooting of copper targets with arrows, while driving a chariot withrepparttar 109459 reigns tied round his waist. Uponrepparttar 109460 death of Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep II inherited a vast empire, it was not something that he intended to lose - any rebellions were severely dealt with and a series of campaigns were made into Syria. Amenhotep III ruled (1417-1379 BC) Egypt atrepparttar 109461 height of its power. His father was Tuthmosis IV by one of that king's chief queens, Mutemwiya. She may have, though mostly in doubt now, beenrepparttar 109462 daughter ofrepparttar 109463 Mitannian king, Artatama. That queen was indeed probably sent to Egypt forrepparttar 109464 purposes of a diplomatic marriage. He was more likely between six and twelve years of age atrepparttar 109465 time of his father's death. Amenhotep III's own chief queen, was not of royal blood, but came from a very substantial family. She was Tiy,repparttar 109466 daughter of Yuya and his wife, Tuya, who owned vast holdings inrepparttar 109467 Delta. Yuya was also a powerful military leader. His extensive diplomatic contacts with other Near Eastern states, especially Mitanni and Babylonia, are revealed inrepparttar 109468 Amarna tablets. Ofrepparttar 109469 great temple he built near Thebes, only two statues,repparttar 109470 so-called colossi of Memnon, remain. Amenhotep's wife Tiye, a woman of humble birth, was prominently associated with him during his long and peaceful reign.We know at least six of his children consisting of two sons and four daughters (other daughters including Henuttaneb and Nebetiah). However, his probable oldest son, Tuthmosis died early leavingrepparttar 109471 future heretic king, Amenhotep IV, otherwise known as Akhenaten, asrepparttar 109472 crown prince. His extensive diplomatic contacts with other Near Eastern states, especially Mitanni and Babylonia, are revealed inrepparttar 109473 Amarna tablets. Ofrepparttar 109474 great temple he built near Thebes, only two statues,repparttar 109475 so-called colossi of Memnon, remain.

Afterrepparttar 109476 military problems seem to have been settled, we find a long period of great building works and high art. It was also a period of lavish luxury atrepparttar 109477 royal court. The wealth needed to accomplish all of this did not come from conquests, but rather from foreign trade and an abundant supply of gold, mostly fromrepparttar 109478 mines inrepparttar 109479 Wadi Hammamat and further south in Nubia. . During his reign, we find a marked increase in Egyptian materials found onrepparttar 109480 Greek mainland. We also find many Egyptian place names, including Mycenae, Phaistos and Knossos first appearing in Egyptian inscriptions We also find letters written between Amenhotep III and his peers in Babylon, Mitanni and Arzawa preserved in cuneiform writing on clay tablets.

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