ANCIENT EGYPTIAN CITIESWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
The ancient Egyptians had many great cities. Some of their remains are still present to keep us bewildered on how amazing ancient Egyptian civilization was. Some cities however have now vanished, but still presence of very fine monuments give us a clue of how wonderful these cities were. For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: www.kingtutshop.com Many of egyptian cities were developed when certain pyramids or other large building works were constructed. The capital moved from site to site depending on Pharaoh. The first reason for this is internal peace which existed in Egypt from earliest times. A second reason directly related to first - given urban mobility each successive pharaoh was free to spend his reigning life on earth preparing his tomb for life after death in a different location to that of his predecessor. Egyptian Pharaohs would move to other sites when resistance to change in current capital cities was too great to accomplish their goals. Thebes, city of god Amon, was capital of Egypt during period of Middle and New Kingdoms. With temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor, and necropolises of Valley of Kings and Valley of Queens, Thebes is a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height. This is great, ancient city of Thebes, capital of Egyptian empire for almost one thousand years, for Egyptian inhabitants it was Uaset, meaning "the chief town" and Niut, "the City" it was later on called Diospolis Magna. Its present name of Luxor comes from Arab El Qousour, translation of Latin "Castra" with which ancient Romans indicated city where they had installed two encampments.
Luxor and Karnak now occupy parts of its site. The city developed at a very early date from a number of small villages, particularly one around modern Luxor (then called Epet), but remained relatively obscure until rise of Theban family that established XI dynasty (c.2134 B.C.). The city rapidly became prominent as royal residence and as a seat of worship of god Amon. At Thebes, also, was necropolis in Valley of Tombs where kings and nobles were entombed in great splendor in crypts cut into cliffs on Nile's west bank. The city's greatest period was that of empire, when it served as a reservoir for immense wealth that poured in from conquered countries. As empire began to decay and locus of power to shift to Nile delta, Thebes went into decline.
Thebes was sacked by Assyrians in 661 B.C., army lead by Assarhaddon, Assurbanipal's army deported townsmen before turning them into slaves and stripped town of its statues and treasures. Lastly, it was completely razed to ground in 84 B.C. by Ptolemy Lathyros to extent that during roman era it was a mass of ruins visited by wayfarers; few remaining townsmen settled in what remained of temples and tombs were reduced to stables. The Romans sacked it in 29 B.C., and by 20 B.C. there was only a few scattered villages seen. The temples and tombs that have survived, including tombs of Tutankhamen and of Ramses II's sons, are among most splendid in world.
Tuhotmosis PharaohsWritten by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga
The Tuthmosis Pharoahs
The ancient Egyptians had a tradition of repeating same name of their Pharoahs in different dynasties. Thus a father,son and grandson would have same name but with first , second or third after it.
The name TUTHMOSIS was given to four pharaohs in 18th dynasty. This dynasty was a strong one, a dynasty which also included Queeen Hatshipsut, one of most powerful queens on Egypt.
For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: www.kingtutshop.com Tuthmosis I was third king in 18th Dynasty.His mother was Semisene. His birth name we are told was Tuthmosis, meaning "Born of god Thoth", though this is a Greek version. His actual Egyptian name was Djehutymes I, but he is also sometimes referred to as Thutmose I, or Thutmosis I. His thrown name was A-Kheper-ka-re (Aakheperkara). He gained thrown at a fairly late age, and may have ruled from 1503-1491BC. Nevertheless, he staged a series of brilliant military campaigns that were to establish Egypt's 18th Dynasty. So effective were these efforts that we believe he must have started preparations of military operations during last years of Amenhotep I's rule. Ahmose son of Ebana, an admiral during Tuthmosis I's reign, tells us that a campaign into Nubia where he penetrated beyond Third Cataract was highly successful. Tuthmosis may have defeated Nubian chief in hand to hand combat and returned to Thebes with body of fallen chief hanging on prow of his ship. His greatest campaigns were in Delta and his battles against Syrians as he finally reached Euphrates River. This expedition opened new horizons that led later to Egypt's important role in he trade and diplomacy of Late Bronze Age Near East. Tuthmosis I brought Egypt a sense of stability and his military campaigns healed wounds of Thebians. It was by Mutnofret (Mutnefert), a minor queen who was sister of his principle wife, Ahmose, that his heir, Tuthmosis II was born. Before he had two sons that had died before him.However, his more famous offspring was Queen Hatshepsut, a daughter by Ahmose who would rule after her husband and brother's death. After death of Ahmose, he probably even took Hatshepsut as his own wife until his death. Ahmose may have also provided him with another daughter by name of Nefrubity who is depicted with Tuthmosis I and Ahmose in temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri. Tuthomosis II He was fourth king in 18th dynasty, son of Tuthomosis I. In order to strengthen his position and legitimize his rule, he was married to Hatshepsut, oldest daughter of Tuthmosis I and Queen Ahmose. She was very possibly older then Tuthmosis II. During this period, Hatshepsut also carried title, "God's Wife of Amun", a position she may have had even before death of Tuthmosis I. Hatshepsut would have been both Tuthmosis II's half sister and cousin. In light of history she became a much better known pharaoh then her husband. Tuthmosis II had only one son. Tuthmosis II must have realized ambitions of his wife, because he attempted to foster ascent of his son to throne by naming his son as his successor before he died. But upon Tuthmosis II's death, his son was still very young, so Hatshepsut took advantage of situation by at first naming herself as regent, and then taking on full role of pharaoh. He may have also had as many as two daughters by Hatshepsut. We are fairly sure one of them was named Neferure and another possible daughter named Neferubity. Tuthmosis II did not rule much as he was weak and he only ruled for thirteen years after which Queen Hatshipsut made a lot of changes. Tuthmosis III It took a while for Tuthmosis III to gain power as his stepmother and aunt was very powerful at that time.However when he did take reigns he was a very good ruler.
Tuthmosis III became a great pharaoh in his own right, and has been referred to as Napoleon of ancient Egypt.But perhaps is reputation is due to fact that his battles were recorded in great detail by archivist, royal scribe and army commander, Thanuny. The battles were recorded on inside walls surrounding granite sanctuary at Karnak. These events were recorded at Karnak because Tuthmosis's army marched under banner of god, Amun, and Amun's temples and estates would largely be beneficiary of spoils of Tuthmosis' wars. From inscriptions left on walls of temples we find that Tuthmosis started to have troubles from Prince Kadesh of Palestine and Syria. He of course due to his vast military training had to deal with all those things. Thutmose immediately set out with his army and crossing Sinai desert he marched to city of Gaza, which had remained loyal to Egypt. The events of campaign are well documented because they are engraved onto walls of temple of Karnak Tuthmosis III fought with considerable nerve and cunning.He marched to Gaza in ten days and planned battle to take Megiddo which was held by a rebellious prince named Kadesh. There were three possible approaches to Megiddo, two of which were fairly open, straightforward routes while third was through a narrow pass that soldiers would only be able to march through in single file. Though he was advised against this dangerous pass by his commanders, Tuthmosis not only took this dangerous route, but actually led troops through. Whether by luck, or gifted intuition this gamble paid off, for when he emerged from tight canyon, he saw that his enemies had arranged their armies to defend easier routes. In fact, he emerged between north and south wings of enemy's armies, and next day decisively beat them in battle. It apparently took a long siege (seven months) to take city of Megiddo, but rewards were great. The sudden and unexpected appearance of Egyptians in their rear forced allies to make a hasty re-deployment of their troops. There are said to have been over 300 allied kings, each with his own army, an immense force. However, Thutmose was determined and when allies saw him at head of his men leading them forward, they lost heart for fight and fled for city of Megiddo The spoils were considerable, and included 894 chariots, including two covered with gold, 200 suites of armor including two of bronze, as well as over 2,000 horses and 25,000 other animals. Tuthmosis III had marched from Thebes up Syrian coast fighting decisive battles, capturing three cities, and then returned back to Thebes. Over next 18 years, his armies would march against Syria every summer and by end of that period, he established Egyptian dominance over Palestine. At Karnak he records capture of 350 cities, and in 42nd year of his rule, Kadesh itself was finally taken. Thutmose III is compared with Napoleon but unlike Napoleon he never lost a battle. He conducted sixteen campaigns in Palestine, Syria and Nubia and his treatment of conquered was always humane. Syria and Palestine were obliged to keep peace and region as a whole experience an unprecedented degree of prosperity.