Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

The ancient Egyptians had many great cities. Some of their remains are still present to keep us bewildered on how amazingrepparttar ancient Egyptian civilization was. Some cities however have now vanished, but stillrepparttar 109435 presence of very fine monuments give us a clue of how wonderful these cities were. For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: Many ofrepparttar 109436 egyptian cities were developed when certain pyramids or other large building works were constructed. The capital moved from site to site depending onrepparttar 109437 Pharaoh. The first reason for this isrepparttar 109438 internal peace which existed in Egypt fromrepparttar 109439 earliest times. A second reason directly related torepparttar 109440 first - given urban mobility each successive pharaoh was free to spend his reigning life on earth preparing his tomb forrepparttar 109441 life after death in a different location to that of his predecessor. Egyptian Pharaohs would move to other sites when resistance to change in current capital cities was too great to accomplish their goals. Thebes,repparttar 109442 city ofrepparttar 109443 god Amon, wasrepparttar 109444 capital of Egypt duringrepparttar 109445 period ofrepparttar 109446 Middle and New Kingdoms. Withrepparttar 109447 temples and palaces at Karnak and Luxor, andrepparttar 109448 necropolises ofrepparttar 109449 Valley ofrepparttar 109450 Kings andrepparttar 109451 Valley ofrepparttar 109452 Queens, Thebes is a striking testimony to Egyptian civilization at its height. This isrepparttar 109453 great, ancient city of Thebes, capital ofrepparttar 109454 Egyptian empire for almost one thousand years, for Egyptian inhabitants it was Uaset, meaning "the chief town" and Niut, "the City" it was later on called Diospolis Magna. Its present name of Luxor comes fromrepparttar 109455 Arab El Qousour, translation ofrepparttar 109456 Latin "Castra" with whichrepparttar 109457 ancient Romans indicatedrepparttar 109458 city where they had installed two encampments.

Luxor and Karnak now occupy parts of its site. The city developed at a very early date from a number of small villages, particularly one around modern Luxor (then called Epet), but remained relatively obscure untilrepparttar 109459 rise ofrepparttar 109460 Theban family that establishedrepparttar 109461 XI dynasty (c.2134 B.C.). The city rapidly became prominent asrepparttar 109462 royal residence and as a seat ofrepparttar 109463 worship ofrepparttar 109464 god Amon. At Thebes, also, wasrepparttar 109465 necropolis inrepparttar 109466 Valley ofrepparttar 109467 Tombs whererepparttar 109468 kings and nobles were entombed in great splendor in crypts cut intorepparttar 109469 cliffs onrepparttar 109470 Nile's west bank. The city's greatest period was that ofrepparttar 109471 empire, when it served as a reservoir forrepparttar 109472 immense wealth that poured in fromrepparttar 109473 conquered countries. Asrepparttar 109474 empire began to decay andrepparttar 109475 locus of power to shift torepparttar 109476 Nile delta, Thebes went into decline.

Thebes was sacked byrepparttar 109477 Assyrians in 661 B.C.,repparttar 109478 army lead by Assarhaddon, Assurbanipal's army deportedrepparttar 109479 townsmen before turning them into slaves and strippedrepparttar 109480 town of its statues and treasures. Lastly, it was completely razed torepparttar 109481 ground in 84 B.C. by Ptolemy Lathyros torepparttar 109482 extent that duringrepparttar 109483 roman era it was a mass of ruins visited by wayfarers;repparttar 109484 few remaining townsmen settled in what remained ofrepparttar 109485 temples andrepparttar 109486 tombs were reduced to stables. The Romans sacked it in 29 B.C., and by 20 B.C. there was only a few scattered villages seen. The temples and tombs that have survived, includingrepparttar 109487 tombs of Tutankhamen and of Ramses II's sons, are amongrepparttar 109488 most splendid inrepparttar 109489 world.

Tuhotmosis Pharaohs

Written by Dr. Sherin Elkhawaga

The Tuthmosis Pharoahs

The ancient Egyptians had a tradition of repeatingrepparttar same name of their Pharoahs in different dynasties. Thus a father,son and grandson would haverepparttar 109434 same name but with first , second or third after it.

The name TUTHMOSIS was given to four pharaohs inrepparttar 109435 18th dynasty. This dynasty was a strong one, a dynasty which also included Queeen Hatshipsut, one ofrepparttar 109436 most powerful queens on Egypt.

For reading more articles about ancient Egypt click on: Tuthmosis I wasrepparttar 109437 third king inrepparttar 109438 18th Dynasty.His mother was Semisene. His birth name we are told was Tuthmosis, meaning "Born ofrepparttar 109439 god Thoth", though this is a Greek version. His actual Egyptian name was Djehutymes I, but he is also sometimes referred to as Thutmose I, or Thutmosis I. His thrown name was A-Kheper-ka-re (Aakheperkara). He gainedrepparttar 109440 thrown at a fairly late age, and may have ruled from 1503-1491BC. Nevertheless, he staged a series of brilliant military campaigns that were to establish Egypt's 18th Dynasty. So effective were these efforts that we believe he must have started preparations ofrepparttar 109441 military operations duringrepparttar 109442 last years of Amenhotep I's rule. Ahmose son of Ebana, an admiral during Tuthmosis I's reign, tells us that a campaign into Nubia where he penetrated beyondrepparttar 109443 Third Cataract was highly successful. Tuthmosis may have defeatedrepparttar 109444 Nubian chief in hand to hand combat and returned to Thebes withrepparttar 109445 body ofrepparttar 109446 fallen chief hanging onrepparttar 109447 prow of his ship. His greatest campaigns were inrepparttar 109448 Delta and his battles againstrepparttar 109449 Syrians as he finally reachedrepparttar 109450 Euphrates River. This expedition opened new horizons that led later to Egypt's important role in he trade and diplomacy ofrepparttar 109451 Late Bronze Age Near East. Tuthmosis I brought Egypt a sense of stability and his military campaigns healedrepparttar 109452 wounds of Thebians. It was by Mutnofret (Mutnefert), a minor queen who wasrepparttar 109453 sister of his principle wife, Ahmose, that his heir, Tuthmosis II was born. Before he had two sons that had died before him.However, his more famous offspring was Queen Hatshepsut, a daughter by Ahmose who would rule after her husband and brother's death. Afterrepparttar 109454 death of Ahmose, he probably even took Hatshepsut as his own wife until his death. Ahmose may have also provided him with another daughter byrepparttar 109455 name of Nefrubity who is depicted with Tuthmosis I and Ahmose inrepparttar 109456 temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri. Tuthomosis II He wasrepparttar 109457 fourth king inrepparttar 109458 18th dynasty,repparttar 109459 son of Tuthomosis I. In order to strengthen his position and legitimize his rule, he was married to Hatshepsut,repparttar 109460 oldest daughter of Tuthmosis I and Queen Ahmose. She was very possibly older then Tuthmosis II. During this period, Hatshepsut also carriedrepparttar 109461 title, "God's Wife of Amun", a position she may have had even beforerepparttar 109462 death of Tuthmosis I. Hatshepsut would have been both Tuthmosis II's half sister and cousin. Inrepparttar 109463 light of history she became a much better known pharaoh then her husband. Tuthmosis II had only one son. Tuthmosis II must have realizedrepparttar 109464 ambitions of his wife, because he attempted to fosterrepparttar 109465 ascent of his son torepparttar 109466 throne by naming his son as his successor before he died. But upon Tuthmosis II's death, his son was still very young, so Hatshepsut took advantage ofrepparttar 109467 situation by at first naming herself as regent, and then taking onrepparttar 109468 full role ofrepparttar 109469 pharaoh. He may have also had as many as two daughters by Hatshepsut. We are fairly sure one of them was named Neferure and another possible daughter named Neferubity. Tuthmosis II did not rule much as he was weak and he only ruled for thirteen years after which Queen Hatshipsut made a lot of changes. Tuthmosis III It took a while for Tuthmosis III to gain power as his stepmother and aunt was very powerful at that time.However when he did takerepparttar 109470 reigns he was a very good ruler.

Tuthmosis III became a great pharaoh in his own right, and has been referred to asrepparttar 109471 Napoleon of ancient Egypt.But perhaps is reputation is due torepparttar 109472 fact that his battles were recorded in great detail byrepparttar 109473 archivist, royal scribe and army commander, Thanuny. The battles were recorded onrepparttar 109474 inside walls surroundingrepparttar 109475 granite sanctuary at Karnak. These events were recorded at Karnak because Tuthmosis's army marched underrepparttar 109476 banner ofrepparttar 109477 god, Amun, and Amun's temples and estates would largely berepparttar 109478 beneficiary ofrepparttar 109479 spoils of Tuthmosis' wars. From inscriptions left on walls ofrepparttar 109480 temples we find that Tuthmosis started to have troubles from Prince Kadesh of Palestine and Syria. He of course due to his vast military training had to deal with all those things. Thutmose immediately set out with his army and crossingrepparttar 109481 Sinai desert he marched torepparttar 109482 city of Gaza, which had remained loyal to Egypt. The events ofrepparttar 109483 campaign are well documented because they are engraved ontorepparttar 109484 walls ofrepparttar 109485 temple of Karnak Tuthmosis III fought with considerable nerve and cunning.He marched to Gaza in ten days and plannedrepparttar 109486 battle to take Megiddo which was held by a rebellious prince named Kadesh. There were three possible approaches to Megiddo, two of which were fairly open, straightforward routes whilerepparttar 109487 third was through a narrow pass that soldiers would only be able to march through in single file. Though he was advised against this dangerous pass by his commanders, Tuthmosis not only took this dangerous route, but actually ledrepparttar 109488 troops through. Whether by luck, or gifted intuition this gamble paid off, for when he emerged fromrepparttar 109489 tight canyon, he saw that his enemies had arranged their armies to defendrepparttar 109490 easier routes. In fact, he emerged betweenrepparttar 109491 north and south wings ofrepparttar 109492 enemy's armies, andrepparttar 109493 next day decisively beat them in battle. It apparently took a long siege (seven months) to takerepparttar 109494 city of Megiddo, butrepparttar 109495 rewards were great. The sudden and unexpected appearance of Egyptians in their rear forcedrepparttar 109496 allies to make a hasty re-deployment of their troops. There are said to have been over 300 allied kings, each with his own army, an immense force. However, Thutmose was determined and whenrepparttar 109497 allies saw him atrepparttar 109498 head of his men leading them forward, they lost heart forrepparttar 109499 fight and fled forrepparttar 109500 city of Megiddo The spoils were considerable, and included 894 chariots, including two covered with gold, 200 suites of armor including two of bronze, as well as over 2,000 horses and 25,000 other animals. Tuthmosis III had marched from Thebes uprepparttar 109501 Syrian coast fighting decisive battles, capturing three cities, and then returned back to Thebes. Overrepparttar 109502 next 18 years, his armies would march against Syria every summer and byrepparttar 109503 end of that period, he established Egyptian dominance over Palestine. At Karnak he recordsrepparttar 109504 capture of 350 cities, and inrepparttar 109505 42nd year of his rule, Kadesh itself was finally taken. Thutmose III is compared with Napoleon but unlike Napoleon he never lost a battle. He conducted sixteen campaigns in Palestine, Syria and Nubia and his treatment ofrepparttar 109506 conquered was always humane. Syria and Palestine were obliged to keeprepparttar 109507 peace andrepparttar 109508 region as a whole experience an unprecedented degree of prosperity.

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